22 research outputs found

    The urban heat island and the features of the flora in the Lublin City area, SE Poland

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    Various forms of human activity in large cities contribute to the creation of a specific climate and new environmental conditions for plants. One of the most important results is the so-called atmospheric urban heat island (UHI). The aim of this study was to compare the thermal conditions in the Lublin City center with those of suburban areas, and so confirm the existence of the UHI and then analyze the influence of thermal conditions on features of the flora. The analysis of the air temperatures was based on data from 2000 to 2014 provided by meteorological stations in the Lublin City center and its nearest surroundings. Floristic data were collected during field studies between 2012ÔÇô2014 and included species richness and frequency, life forms, and synecological groups of the flora and its elements. The thermal requirements of species were defined on the basis of ecological indicator values (EIVs). Our research confirmed the presence of the UHI in the Lublin City center. Over the study period, the mean temperature in the city center was by 0.87┬░C higher than that in the suburban areas. The largest differences in mean annual air temperature between the city center and the suburbs were recorded in 2007 and 2011ÔÇô2013. In total, 552 species were recorded, including six life-form and synecological groups, 246 thermophilous and 436 heliophilous species. The species richness, proportion of therophytes, alien, thermo- and heliophilous species decreased with distance from the city center. The thermal conditions expressed by the EIV L and T ranged from L = 4.5, T = 3.8 in the city center, to L = 3.1, T = 3.4 in the suburbs. An ordination analysis facilitated determination of the relationships between characteristics of the flora, the EIV values, and land use classes. An increasing level of anthropopressure was found to be positively correlated with thermal conditions and the flora traits

    How a river course influences the species richness and ecological requirements on two opposite riverbanks in a forest area

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    The goal of the present research was to find correlations between the topographic attributes of a river valley and local ground-floor vegetation and its habitat requirements expressed by ecological indicator values (EIV), using the geographical information systems (GIS), digital elevation model (DEM), and multivariate statistical analysis. We paid special attention to the river course, which determines the differentiation in slope aspects and the amount of solar radiation reaching the ground surface. The model object was an almost latitudinal, ca. 4-km-long break section of the Sopot river, crossing the escarpment zone of the Central Roztocze Highlands, southeastern Poland. The main material comprised species lists (with estimated abundance) for each ca. 200-m-long section, according to the river valley course, separately for the left and right riverbanks, 40 sections altogether, ca. 15 000 vegetation records, and physical and chemical soil measurements. A 3-meter resolution DEM was derived from a 1:10 000 topographic map. We calculated the correlations between the topographic attributes of the valley, species richness, and the EIVs for all the species recognized in each section of the valley. We found 241 herb plant species in the ground-floor vegetation of the study area. We did not find significant differences between the two riversides (61 ┬▒13 species per one section for the left and 63 ┬▒17 for the right side). Thus, the parallel course of the river valley does not change the species richness on a more ÔÇťsunnyÔÇŁ and more ÔÇťshinyÔÇŁ riverbank. However, this factor ÔÇťcooperatingÔÇŁ with other topographic attributes of the valley significantly differentiates the shape of species showing various requirements for basic habitat resources: light, moisture, soil trophy, reaction, dispersion, and organic-matter content

    Evaluation of pediatric flatfoot treatment results with new type of implant

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    Introduction and Purpose: Optimal methods of treating the flat feet have been searched for many years. Summarizing the latest medical reports, more and more often the method of choice in dynamic disorders are minimally invasive procedures consisting in supporting and stabilizing the displaced talus with an implant inserted into the tarsal sinus. The aim of the study is to evaluate the results of treatment of flat foot in two groups of patients operated on with different types of implants. Materials and methods: The study included 120 patients treated for the flat foot. All children underwent ankle bone stabilization with a titanium implant inserted into the tarsal sinus. The patients were divided into 2 research groups according to the type of implant used. The patients were clinically examined, and a retrospective analysis of medical records and pre- and postoperative radiological images was performed. The gait after correction of the defect was analyzed in the gait laboratory. The loads and pressure of individual components of the operated foot were compared. Results: In a clinical trial, improvements in the appearance and function of the foot were observed in both groups. On postoperative radiological images, in about 78% of patients, the measurement of the angles was within the normal range. In both groups, the load and the pressure of individual components of the operated feet obtained a significant improvement, no differences were found. Conclusions: Correction of the flat foot in children with the use of an implant improves the alignment of the foot and reduces pain. In some cases, the lengthening of the gastrocnemius muscle aponeurosis is an indispensable procedure and significantly improves the mobility of the foot and the final effect.Wst─Öp i cel: Od wielu lat poszukiwane s─ů optymalne sposoby leczenia stopy p┼éasko-ko┼Ťlawej. Podsumowuj─ůc najnowsze doniesienia medyczne coraz cz─Ö┼Ťciej metod─ů z wyboru przy zaburzeniach dynamicznych s─ů zabiegi ma┼éoinwazyjne polegaj─ůce na podparciu i stabilizacji przemieszczonej ko┼Ťci skokowej za pomoc─ů implantu wprowadzonego do zatoki st─Öpu. Celem pracy jest ocena wynik├│w leczenia stopy p┼éasko-ko┼Ťlawej w dw├│ch grupach pacjent├│w operowanych z u┼╝yciem r├│┼╝nych typ├│w implantu. Materia┼éy i metody: Badaniem obj─Ötych zosta┼éo 120 pacjent├│w, leczonych z powodu stopy p┼éasko-ko┼Ťlawej. U wszystkich dzieci zastosowano stabilizacj─Ö ko┼Ťci skokowej przy pomocy tytanowego implantu wprowadzonego do zatoki st─Öpu. Pacjenci zostali podzieleni na 2 grupy badawcze zgodnie z rodzajem zastosowanego implantu. Pacjent├│w zbadano klinicznie, wykonano retrospektywn─ů analiz─Ö dokumentacji medycznej i obraz├│w radiologicznych przed- i pooperacyjnych. Ch├│d po korekcji wady zosta┼é poddany analizie w laboratorium chodu. Por├│wnane zosta┼éy obci─ů┼╝enia i nacisk poszczeg├│lnych sk┼éadowych stopy operowanej. Wyniki: W badaniu klinicznym zaobserwowano popraw─Ö wygl─ůdu i funkcji stopy w obu grupach. Na obrazach radiologicznych pooperacyjnych u ok 78% pacjent├│w wynik pomiarowy k─ůt├│w mie┼Ťci┼é si─Ö w granicy normy. W obu grupach obci─ů┼╝enia i nacisk poszczeg├│lnych sk┼éadowych st├│p operowanych uzyska┼éy znacz─ůc─ů popraw─Ö, nie wykazano r├│┼╝nic. Wnioski: Korekcja stopy p┼éasko-ko┼Ťlawej u dzieci przy pomocy implantu poprawia kosmetyk─Ö stopy, wp┼éywa na zmniejszenie dolegliwo┼Ťci b├│lowych. Wyd┼éu┼╝enie rozci─Ögna mi─Ö┼Ťnia brzuchatego u cz─Ö┼Ťci przypadk├│w jest zabiegiem niezb─Ödnym i znacz─ůco wp┼éywa na popraw─Ö ruchomo┼Ťci stopy oraz efekt ko┼äcowy

    How a river course influences the species richness and ecological requirements on two opposite riverbanks in a forest area

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    The goal of the present research was to find correlations between the topographic attributes of a river valley and local ground-floor vegetation and its habitat requirements expressed by ecological indicator values (EIV), using the geographical information systems (GIS), digital elevation model (DEM), and multivariate statistical analysis. We paid special attention to the river course, which determines the differentiation in slope aspects and the amount of solar radiation reaching the ground surface. The model object was an almost latitudinal, ca. 4-km-long break section of the Sopot river, crossing the escarpment zone of the Central Roztocze Highlands, southeastern Poland. The main material comprised species lists (with estimated abundance) for each ca. 200-m-long section, according to the river valley course, separately for the left and right riverbanks, 40 sections altogether, ca. 15 000 vegetation records, and physical and chemical soil measurements. A 3-meter resolution DEM was derived from a 1:10 000 topographic map. We calculated the correlations between the topographic attributes of the valley, species richness, and the EIVs for all the species recognized in each section of the valley. We found 241 herb plant species in the ground-floor vegetation of the study area. We did not find significant differences between the two riversides (61 ┬▒13 species per one section for the left and 63 ┬▒17 for the right side). Thus, the parallel course of the river valley does not change the species richness on a more ÔÇťsunnyÔÇŁ and more ÔÇťshinyÔÇŁ riverbank. However, this factor ÔÇťcooperatingÔÇŁ with other topographic attributes of the valley significantly differentiates the shape of species showing various requirements for basic habitat resources: light, moisture, soil trophy, reaction, dispersion, and organic-matter content

    Is Grazing Good for Wet Meadows? Vegetation Changes Caused by White-Backed Cattle

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    Wetland ecosystems are highly productive and valued for numerous reasons including wildlife habitat, biodiversity, water quantity and quality, and human uses. Grazing livestock on wet grasslands can sometimes be controversial due the humidity of the habitat, but on the other hand, it plays an important role in grassland preservation. Therefore, we evaluated the impact of Polish white-backed cattle grazing on changes in the vegetation (13 phytosociological relevés taken in years 2016–2019) of wet meadows as well as forage quality based on the species composition. Biodiversity was estimated based on species richness, Shannon–Wiener diversity and evenness indices, and Rényi diversity profiles. The peatland featured mostly high-sedge and wet meadows communities of the Magnocaricion and the Calthion alliances. The species and biodiversity indices demonstrated significant rising trends. Extensive grazing resulted in the decreased cover of the dominant species of rush meadows, e.g., the common reed, acute, and tufted sedge. The gaps that had emerged thanks to the reduced cover of the dominant species were filled by meadow plants, which led to increased biodiversity. During the four years of grazing, the cattle obtained satisfactory weight gains, particularly in 2019, which indicates that wet meadows are suitable for grazing and can provide sufficient feed for cattle

    Is Grazing Good for Wet Meadows? Vegetation Changes Caused by White-Backed Cattle

    No full text
    Wetland ecosystems are highly productive and valued for numerous reasons including wildlife habitat, biodiversity, water quantity and quality, and human uses. Grazing livestock on wet grasslands can sometimes be controversial due the humidity of the habitat, but on the other hand, it plays an important role in grassland preservation. Therefore, we evaluated the impact of Polish white-backed cattle grazing on changes in the vegetation (13 phytosociological relev├ęs taken in years 2016ÔÇô2019) of wet meadows as well as forage quality based on the species composition. Biodiversity was estimated based on species richness, ShannonÔÇôWiener diversity and evenness indices, and R├ęnyi diversity profiles. The peatland featured mostly high-sedge and wet meadows communities of the Magnocaricion and the Calthion alliances. The species and biodiversity indices demonstrated significant rising trends. Extensive grazing resulted in the decreased cover of the dominant species of rush meadows, e.g., the common reed, acute, and tufted sedge. The gaps that had emerged thanks to the reduced cover of the dominant species were filled by meadow plants, which led to increased biodiversity. During the four years of grazing, the cattle obtained satisfactory weight gains, particularly in 2019, which indicates that wet meadows are suitable for grazing and can provide sufficient feed for cattle

    Physiological Diversity of Spitsbergen Soil Microbial Communities Suggests Their Potential as Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria

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    The objective of the study was to assess the physiological diversity and metabolic activity of the soil bacterial communities inhabiting Spitsbergen soils in search of bacterial abilities facilitating plant growth promotion. In the soil, the total number of culturable microorganisms, the number of their individual physiological groups (including Siderophore Synthesizing; SSB and Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria; PSB), the dehydrogenase (DH) activity, and the ability to utilize sources of C, N, P (EcoPlate) were analysed. In bacterial isolates, siderophores production, ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate) deaminase (ACCD) activity, IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) synthesis were examined. The isolates were applied to the seeds of Phaseolus coccineus regarding their germination and root length. The results showed differences between copio- and oligotrophic bacteria. A usually high number of SSB was accompanied by the raised number of PSB. A bigger number of SSB was connected with low values of Fe in the soil. High DH activity was assisted by greater number of copio- and oligotrophic bacteria, raised average well color development value, and N and C contents in the soil. Germination index was more alike relative seed germination than relative root growth. IAA concentration and ACCD activity were conversely related. Synthesis of siderophores was matched with ACCD activity and its high level was combined with elevated germination index. In spite of different localization of soil samples, some isolates proved similar traits of activity. Distinct affiliation of isolates and their various localizations were displayed. Among all isolates tested, some possessed one main trait of activity, but most of them had two or more significant features for potential plant growth stimulation. These isolates could be an important source of useful bacteria
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