176 research outputs found

    Dense and Warm Molecular Gas and Warm Dust in Nearby Galaxies

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    We performed 12CO(1-0), 13CO(1-0), and HCN(1-0) single-dish observations (beam size ~14"-18") toward nearby starburst and non-starburst galaxies using the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. The 13CO(1-0) and HCN(1-0) emissions were detected from all the seven starburst galaxies, with the intensities of both lines being similar (i.e., the ratios are around unity). On the other hand, for case of the non-starburst galaxies, the 13CO(1-0) emission was detected from all three galaxies, while the HCN(1-0) emission was weakly or not detected in past observations. This result indicates that the HCN/13CO intensity ratios are significantly larger (~1.15+-0.32) in the starburst galaxy samples than the non-starburst galaxy samples (<0.31+-0.14). The large-velocity-gradient model suggests that the molecular gas in the starburst galaxies have warmer and denser conditions than that in the non-starburst galaxies, and the photon-dominated-region model suggests that the denser molecular gas is irradiated by stronger interstellar radiation field in the starburst galaxies than that in the non-starburst galaxies. In addition, HCN/13CO in our sample galaxies exhibit strong correlations with the IRAS 25 micron flux ratios. It is a well established fact that there exists a strong correlation between dense molecular gas and star formation activities, but our results suggest that molecular gas temperature is also an important parameter.Comment: 14 pages, 6 figures. Accepted for publication in PAS

    CO mapping of the nuclear region of NGC 6946 and IC 342 with Nobeyama millimeter array

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    CO observations of nearby galaxies with nuclear active star forming regions (and starburst galaxies) with angular resolutions around 7 seconds revealed that molecular bars with a length of a few kiloparsecs have been formed in the central regions of the galaxies. The molecular bar is interpreted as part of shock waves induced by an oval or barred potential field. By shock dissipation or dissipative cloud-cloud collisions, the molecular gas gains an infall motion and the nuclear star formation activity is fueled. But the distribution and kinematics of the molecular gas in the nuclear regions, which are sites of active star formation, remain unknown. Higher angular resolutions are needed to investigate the gas in the nuclear regions. Researchers made aperture synthesis observations of the nuclear region of the late-type spiral galaxies NGC 6946 and IC 342 with resolutions of 7.6 seconds x 4.2 seconds (P.A. = 147 deg) and 2.4 seconds x 2.3 seconds (P.A. = 149 deg), respectively. The distances to NGC 6496 and IC 342 are assumed to be 5.5 Mpc and 3.9 Mpc, respectively. Researchers have found 100-300 pc nuclear gas disk and ring inside a few kpc molecular gas bars. Researchers present the results of the observations and propose a possible mechanism of active star formation in the nuclear region

    Millimeter- and Submillimeter-Wave Observations of the OMC-2/3 Region; I. Dispersing and Rotating Core around an Intermediate-mass Protostar MMS 7

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    We report the results of H13CO+(1-0), CO(1-0), and 3.3 mm dust continuum observations toward one of the strongest mm-wave sources in OMC-3, MMS 7, with the Nobeyama Millimeter Array (NMA) and the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. With the NMA, we detected centrally-condensed 3.3 mm dust-continuum emission which coincides with the MIR source and the free-free jet. Our combined H13CO+ observations have revealed a disk-like envelope. The size and the mass of the disk-like envelope are 0.15 times 0.11 pc and 5.1 - 9.1 M_sun, respectively. The combined map also shows that the outer portion of the disk-like envelope has a fan-shaped structure which delineates the rim of the CO(1-0) outflow observed with the NMA. The position-velocity (P-V) diagrams in the H13CO+ (1-0) emission show that the velocity field in the disk-like envelope is composed of a dispersing gas motion and a possible rigid-like rotation. The mass dispersing rate is estimated to be (3.4 - 6.0) times 10^-5 M_sun/yr, which implies that MMS 7 has an ability to disperse ~10 M_sun during the protostellar evolutional time of a few times 10^5 yr. The specific angular momentum of the possible rotation in the disk-like envelope is nearly two orders of magnitude larger than that in low-mass cores. The turn-over point of the power law of the angular momentum distribution in the disk-like envelope (< 0.007 pc), which is likely to be related to the outer radius of the central mass accretion, is similar to the size of the 3.3 mm dust condensation. The intermediate-mass protostar MMS 7 is in the last stage of the main accretion phase and that the substantial portion of the outer gas has already been dispersed, while the mass accretion may still be on-going at the innermost region traced by the dusty condensation.Comment: 19 pages, 9 figures, ApJ accepted pape
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