2,854 research outputs found

### The influence of coronal EUV irradiance on the emission in the He I 10830 A and D3 multiplets

Two of the most attractive spectral windows for spectropolarimetric
investigations of the physical properties of the plasma structures in the solar
chromosphere and corona are the ones provided by the spectral lines of the He I
10830 A and 5876 A (or D3) multiplets, whose polarization signals are sensitive
to the Hanle and Zeeman effects. However, in order to be able to carry out
reliable diagnostics, it is crucial to have a good physical understanding of
the sensitivity of the observed spectral line radiation to the various
competing driving mechanisms. Here we report a series of off-the-limb non-LTE
calculations of the He I D3 and 10830 A emission profiles, focusing our
investigation on their sensitivity to the EUV coronal irradiation and the model
atmosphere used in the calculations. We show in particular that the intensity
ratio of the blue to the red components in the emission profiles of the He I
10830 A multiplet turns out to be a good candidate as a diagnostic tool for the
coronal irradiance. Measurements of this observable as a function of the
distance to the limb and its confrontation with radiative transfer modeling
might give us valuable information on the physical properties of the solar
atmosphere and on the amount of EUV radiation at relevant wavelengths
penetrating the chromosphere from above.Comment: 19 pages, 11 figures (pre-print format). Accepted for publication in
Ap

### Parallel Implementation of the PHOENIX Generalized Stellar Atmosphere Program

We describe the parallel implementation of our generalized stellar atmosphere
and NLTE radiative transfer computer program PHOENIX. We discuss the parallel
algorithms we have developed for radiative transfer, spectral line opacity, and
NLTE opacity and rate calculations. Our implementation uses a MIMD design based
on a relatively small number of MPI library calls. We report the results of
test calculations on a number of different parallel computers and discuss the
results of scalability tests.Comment: To appear in ApJ, 1997, vol 483. LaTeX, 34 pages, 3 Figures, uses
AASTeX macros and styles natbib.sty, and psfig.st

### Synchrotron Radiation from the Galactic Center in Decaying Dark Matter Scenario

We discuss the synchrotron radiation flux from the Galactic center in
unstable dark matter scenario. Motivated by the anomalous excess of the
positron fraction recently reported by the PAMELA collaboration, we consider
the case that the dark matter particle is unstable (and long-lived), and that
energetic electron and positron are produced by the decay of dark matter. Then,
the emitted electron and positron becomes the source of the synchrotron
radiation. We calculate the synchrotron radiation flux for models of decaying
dark matter, which can explain the PAMELA positron excess. Taking the lifetime
of the dark matter of O(10^26 sec), which is the suggested value to explain the
PAMELA anomaly, the synchrotron radiation flux is found to be O(1 kJy/str) or
smaller, depending on the particle-physics and cosmological parameters.Comment: 20 pages, 6 figure

### Scattered Lyman-alpha Radiation Around Sources Before Cosmological Reionization

The spectra of the first galaxies and quasars in the Universe should be
strongly absorbed shortward of their rest-frame Lyman-alpha wavelength by
neutral hydrogen (HI) in the intervening intergalactic medium. However, the
Lyman-alpha line photons emitted by these sources are not eliminated but rather
scatter until they redshift out of resonance and escape due to the Hubble
expansion of the surrounding intergalactic HI. We calculate the resulting
brightness distribution and the spectral shape of the diffuse Lyman-alpha line
emission around high redshift sources, before the intergalactic medium was
reionized. Typically, the Lyman-alpha photons emitted by a source at z=10
scatter over a characteristic angular radius of order 15 arcseconds around the
source and compose a line which is broadened and redshifted by about a thousand
km/s relative to the source. The scattered photons are highly polarized.
Detection of the diffuse Lyman-alpha halos around high redshift sources would
provide a unique tool for probing the neutral intergalactic medium before the
epoch of reionization. On sufficiently large scales where the Hubble flow is
smooth and the gas is neutral, the Lyman-alpha brightness distribution can be
used to determine the cosmological mass densities of baryons and matter.Comment: 21 pages, 5 Postscript figures, accepted by ApJ; figures 1--3
corrected; new section added on the detectability of Lyman alpha halos;
conclusions update

### A New Kinetic Equation for Compton Scattering

A kinetic equation for Compton scattering is given that differs from the
Kompaneets equation in several significant ways. By using an inverse
differential operator this equation allows treatment of problems for which the
radiation field varies rapidly on the scale of the width of the Compton kernel.
This inverse operator method describes, among other effects, the thermal
Doppler broadening of spectral lines and continuum edges, and automatically
incorporates the process of Compton heating/cooling. It is well adapted for
inclusion into a numerical iterative solution of radiative transfer problems.
The equivalent kernel of the new method is shown to be a positive function and
with reasonable accuracy near the intitial frequency, unlike the Kompaneets
kernel, which is singular and not wholly positive. It is shown that iterates of
the inverse operator kernel can be easily calculated numerically, and a simple
summation formula over these iterates is derived that can be efficiently used
to compute Comptonized spectra. It is shown that the new method can be used for
initial value and other problems with no more numerical effort than the
Kompaneets equation, and that it more correctly describes the solution over
times comparable to the mean scattering time.Comment: 27 pages, 5 figures, to be published in ApJ. Minor changes, including
one reference correcte

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