3,068 research outputs found

    The Relationship between Complex Problem Solving and Intelligence: An Analysis of Three Computer Simulated Scenarios

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    The gap between field research and laboratory research has always been a problem in psychology. With the introduction of computers into the laboratory, computer simulated tasks allowed the observation of complex problem solving performance in the laboratory with a higher degree of ecological validity than ever before. The main aim of this thesis was to explore the relationship between complex problem solving ability and intelligence by presenting the results of two studies, using over 400 adults. Complex problem solving ability was assessed by performance on three computer simulations: Furniture Factory, Tailorshop, and Forestry System. The theory of fluid and crystallised intelligence guided the selection of cognitive abilities tests. Relationships between broad cognitive abilities including Fluid reasoning (Gf), Acculturation knowledge (Gc), Visual processing (Gv), Quantitative knowledge (Gq), and Processing speed (Gs) with computer simulation performance were explored. Previous research exploring the relationship between complex problem solving and intelligence has led to inconsistent and often contradictory findings. Scoring problems in previous research were addressed and for all three computer simulations, relationships between intelligence and complex problem solving were found. Overall, Gf and Gc explained 20% of the variance in complex problem solving. Correlations between intelligence and complex problem solving increased when specific cognitive abilities tests and aggregated computer simulation scores were employed, rather than the employment of general or factor scores of intelligence and final computer simulation scores. A new aggregated scoring technique (goal achievement) that allowed consistent scoring across different computer simulations was developed. The strongest relationship between intelligence and complex problem solving was observed between goal achievement scores and specific tests of cogn itive abilities such as esoteric analogies and critical reas! oning. There were significant correlations between goal achievement on the Furniture Factory and both esoteric analogies and critical reasoning (r = .37, p < .05, r = .41, p < .05) respectively. Correlations between goal achievement on the Tailorshop and both esoteric analogies and critical reasoning were significant (r = .25, p < .05, r = .29, p < .05) respectively. Correlations between goal achievement on the Forestry System and both esoteric analogies and critical reasoning were also significant (r = .38, p < .05, r = .30, p < .05) respectively. In addition, performance scores on all three computer simulations were correlated with one another. These findings support the application of the Brunswik lens model to complex problem solving research. Negative correlations, albeit rather modest, were observed between neuroticism and complex problem solving performance on the Furniture Factory (r = -.17, p < .05) and the Tailorshop (r = -.21, p < .05), indicating that emoti on may also mediate complex problem solving performance. Results of this thesis may bring individual differences research in this area a step closer to obtaining stable results from which generalisations about complex problem solving tasks can be made

    The Design of Everyday Hate: A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis

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    Throughout history artists, poets, and writers have been interested in the nature of hate. Scientists from a variety of disciplines have also attempted to unravel its mysteries. Yet in spite of abundant theorizing and research, most modern scholars still complain that little is known about this complex emotion. In this study, a new approach has been taken. Following Heider‚Äôs (1958) observation that scientists can often learn a great deal by exploring people‚Äôs ‚Äúcommon-sense‚ÄĚ or ‚Äúna√Įve psychologies,‚ÄĚ students at the University of Texas and participants from a number of Internet sites were interviewed regarding their perceptions of the nature of emotion. Using grounded theory and employing mixed-method analyses (qualitative and quantitative), four questions were explored: (1) What do people mean by hate? (2) Whom do they hate? (3) Why do people hate the people they do? (4) How do people attempt to deal with such feelings? From participants‚Äô answers, a theory concerning everyday hate was generated

    The Influence of Mentorship on K-5 General Education Teachers: A Study of Southeastern Schools in Virginia

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    The current teacher shortage and the demand for high quality teachers presents a nationwide educational problem. Additionally, more than one-third of teachers leave the profession within the first five years of their careers (Callahan, 2015). The most vital and systemic change that is needed in our educational landscape is the attraction, retention, and professional development of quality teachers (Darling-Hammond & Sykes, 2003). If school district administrators expect new teachers to succeed, they need to provide them with unprecedented levels of support. This qualitative research study examined new elementary education teachers\u27 perceptions of the influence of their mentorship program and the factors that influenced their relationships. Fifteen elementary teachers participated in the survey from one school district in Southeastern Virginia. The participant responses were analyzed using emergent coding. Results revealed four themes: (1) positive mentor relationship; (2) support system; (3) influence of teacher preparation and teacher induction program; (4) intricacies of the educational profession. Findings from this study can be used to inform mentorship practices in school districts to better support new teachers

    The Market Pricing of Accruals Quality

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    We investigate whether investors price accruals quality, our proxy for the information risk associated with earnings. Measuring accruals quality (AQ) as the standard deviation of residuals from regressions relating current accruals to cash flows, we find that poorer AQ is associated with larger costs of debt and equity. This result is consistent across several alternative specifications of the AQ metric. We also distinguish between accruals quality driven by economic fundamentals ('innate AQ') versus management choices ('discretionary AQ'). Both components have significant cost of capital effects, but innate AQ effects are significantly larger than discretionary AQ effects.Expected return; Information uncertainty; Accounting quality

    (The) comedies of Oscar Wilde ..

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    Typewritten sheets in cover. Thesis (M.A.)--Boston University This item was digitized by the Internet Archive. Bibliography: 5 p. at end

    The presidential election of 1916

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    Thesis (M.A.)--Boston Universit

    ¬ŅCampesinos, Banqueros o ahorristas? La econom√≠a y la aprobaci√≥n presidencial en Uruguay

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    How the public translates economic information into opinions about their leaders is a fundamental question at the intersection of political economy and mass politics. A prominent study by MacKuen, Erikson, and Stimson (1992) found evidence in support of a rational-expectations model of economic voting, whereby the public judges the president not on how past economic performance as affected them personally (like a &ldquo;peasant&rdquo;) but rather according to full information about national economic forecasts and/or the implications of current policies for future performance (like a &ldquo;banker&rdquo;). We test how well this model travels to Uruguay using an original monthly time series on presidential approval, objective indicators of economic conditions, and consumer confidence levels. Results reject both the &ldquo;peasant&rdquo; and the &ldquo;banker&rdquo; logic and, instead, suggest Uruguayans translate information about the economy into personal economic prospections and judge the president accordingly. Since this process borrows the personal/egotropic element of the &ldquo;peasant&rdquo; logic and the prospective element of the &ldquo;banker&rdquo; logic, blending these caricatures we conclude the political economy of presidential approval in Uruguay resembles that of a &ldquo;piggybanker&rdquo;La forma en que la opini&oacute;n p&uacute;blica traduce la informaci&oacute;n econ&oacute;mica en opiniones sobre sus l&iacute;deres es un tema fundamental en la relaci&oacute;n entre econom&iacute;a pol&iacute;tica y la pol&iacute;tica de masas. El famoso estudio de MacKuen, Erikson y Stimson (1992) demostr&oacute; que existe un modelo de voto econ&oacute;mico basado en expectativas racionales, donde el p&uacute;blico no juzga al presidente a partir de la forma en que el desempe&ntilde;o econ&oacute;mico del pasado los ha afectado personalmente (como &ldquo;campesinos&rdquo;), sino a partir de como el estado de la econom&iacute;a nacional, &nbsp;y/o de la implementaci&oacute;n de ciertas pol&iacute;ticas, puede afectar el desempe&ntilde;o de la econom&iacute;a en futuro (como &ldquo;banqueros&rdquo;). Aqu&iacute; usando una serie mensual de datos sobre aprobaci&oacute;n presidencial, indicadores objetivos de condiciones econ&oacute;micas y niveles de confianza de los consumidores, testeamos qu&eacute; tan bien aplica este modelo para el caso de Uruguay. Los resultados permiten rechazar tanto la l&oacute;gica del &ldquo;campesino&rdquo; como la l&oacute;gica del &ldquo;banquero&rdquo; y, en cambio, sugieren que los uruguayos juzgan al Presidente a partir de la informaci&oacute;n sobre la econom&iacute;a a partir de evaluaciones prospectivas sobre su econom&iacute;a personal. Dado que el proceso toma los elementos personales o egotr&oacute;picos de la l&oacute;gica del &ldquo;campesino&rdquo; y los elementos prospectivos de la l&oacute;gica del &ldquo;banquero&rdquo;, mezclamos estas caricaturas para concluir que la econom&iacute;a pol&iacute;tica de la aprobaci&oacute;n presidencial en Uruguay se asemeja a la de un &ldquo;ahorrista&rdquo;
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