5,458 research outputs found

    Rape myth acceptance, victim blame attribution and Just World Beliefs: a rapid evidence assessment

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    Background: Rape is underreported, potentially because individuals self-blame and/or are blamed by others. Research predominantly illustrates male-perpetrated stranger-rape of females; thus, there may be a perception that rape myth acceptance (RMA) and victim-blaming are most prevalent in males. The purpose of this rapid evidence assessment was to investigate the availability of high-quality research into the effects of Just World Beliefs, perpetrator/victim gender, and stranger- and acquaintance/marital-rape scenarios on victim-blaming and RMA. Methods: Several electronic databases were searched for empirical papers using terms including: ‘victim blame’, ‘rape myth acceptance’, ‘Just World Beliefs’, ‘type of rape’ and ‘gender’. Gough's (2007) weight of evidence framework was used to assess quality prior to inclusion. Findings: Studies retained after filtering and quality assessment suggested that RMA was predictive of victim-blaming with both male and female ‘victims’. Rape myth acceptance is more prevalent in males even in male ‘victim’ scenarios, and Just World Belief was positively associated with RMA. Greater victim-blaming was attributed in stranger- vs. acquaintance-rape scenarios. Discussion: There are no absolute conclusions regarding the role of gender or situational factors and rape-supportive/victim-blaming attitudes. Further empirical research is required to understand the prevalence of RMA in perceptions of marital rape and, particularly, homosexual marital rape

    The Symmetric Group Defies Strong Fourier Sampling

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    The dramatic exponential speedups of quantum algorithms over their best existing classical counterparts were ushered in by the technique of Fourier sampling, introduced by Bernstein and Vazirani and developed by Simon and Shor into an approach to the hidden subgroup problem. This approach has proved successful for abelian groups, leading to efficient algorithms for factoring, extracting discrete logarithms, and other number-theoretic problems. We show, however, that this method cannot resolve the hidden subgroup problem in the symmetric groups, even in the weakest, information-theoretic sense. In particular, we show that the Graph Isomorphism problem cannot be solved by this approach. Our work implies that any quantum approach based upon the measurement of coset states must depart from the original framework by using entangled measurements on multiple coset states

    Pseudo-Anosov subgroups of general fibered 3-manifold groups

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    We show that finitely generated and purely pseudo-Anosov subgroups of fibered 3-manifolds with reducible monodromy are convex cocompact as subgroups of the mapping class group via the Birman exact sequence. Combined with results of Dowdall--Kent--Leininger and Kent--Leininger--Schleimer, this establishes the result for the image of all such fibered 3-manifold groups in the mapping class group

    Improving Tracer Particle Surface Properties for Wind Tunnel Research

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    The surface properties of micron size polystyrene latex microspheres (PSLs) modified with quaternary alkylammonium (QA) surfactants were investigated, with a focus on the relationship between surface chemistry and adhesion. These investigations were motivated by the need to develop non-fouling tracer particles for wind tunnel studies. The goals were to relate the work of adhesion between particles and substrates to the type and amount of QA modifier in order to optimize the performance of PSL tracers. Surfactant-free emulsion polymerization (SFEP) can produce PSLs for wind tunnel tracers. Covalentlybound charged groups (derived from the initiator) stabilize PSL surfaces in water. This work used PSLs with anionic surface groups. Previous studies indicated that surface-bound charged groups on PSLs have a significant impact on their interfacial energy. Modifying charged surface groups therefore offers a method to modulate PSL interfacial properties. In this work, PSLs and films were modified by adsorption of QA surfactants

    CHAP Enhances Versatility in Colloidal Probe Fabrication

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    A colloidal probe, comprising a colloidal particle attached to an atomic force microscope cantilever, is employed to measure directly interaction forces between the particle and a surface. It is possible to change or even destroy a particle while attaching it to a cantilever, thus limiting the types of systems to which the colloidal probe technique may be applied. Here we present the Controlled Heating and Alignment Platform (CHAP) for fabricating colloidal probes without altering the original characteristics of the attached particle. The CHAP applies heat directly to the atomic force microscope chip to rapidly and precisely control cantilever temperature. This minimizes particle heating and enables control over the viscosity of thermoplastic adhesive, to prevent it from contaminating the particle surface. 3D-printed components made the CHAP compatible with standard optical microscopes and streamlined the fabrication process while increasing the platforms versatility. Using the CHAP with a thermoplastic wax adhesive, colloidal probes were fabricated using polystyrene and silica particles between 0.7 and 40 m in diameter. We characterized the properties and interactions of the adhesive and particles, as well as the properties of the completed probes, to demonstrate the retention of particle features throughout fabrication. Pull-off tests with CHAPs probes measured adhesive force values in the expected ranges and demonstrated that particles were firmly attached to the cantilevers

    The intrinsic stiffness of human trabecular meshwork cells increases with senescence.

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    Dysfunction of the human trabecular meshwork (HTM) plays a central role in the age-associated disease glaucoma, a leading cause of irreversible blindness. The etiology remains poorly understood but cellular senescence, increased stiffness of the tissue, and the expression of Wnt antagonists such as secreted frizzled related protein-1 (SFRP1) have been implicated. However, it is not known if senescence is causally linked to either stiffness or SFRP1 expression. In this study, we utilized in vitro HTM senescence to determine the effect on cellular stiffening and SFRP1 expression. Stiffness of cultured cells was measured using atomic force microscopy and the morphology of the cytoskeleton was determined using immunofluorescent analysis. SFRP1 expression was measured using qPCR and immunofluorescent analysis. Senescent cell stiffness increased 1.88±0.14 or 2.57±0.14 fold in the presence or absence of serum, respectively. This was accompanied by increased vimentin expression, stress fiber formation, and SFRP1 expression. In aggregate, these data demonstrate that senescence may be a causal factor in HTM stiffening and elevated SFRP1 expression, and contribute towards disease progression. These findings provide insight into the etiology of glaucoma and, more broadly, suggest a causal link between senescence and altered tissue biomechanics in aging-associated diseases

    A cross-sectional study of predatory publishing emails received by career development grant awardees

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    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the scope of academic spam emails (ASEs) among career development grant awardees and the factors associated with the amount of time spent addressing them. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey of career development grant investigators via an anonymous online survey was conducted. In addition to demographic and professional information, we asked investigators to report the number of ASEs received each day, how they determined whether these emails were spam and time they spent per day addressing them. We used bivariate analysis to assess factors associated with the amount of time spent on ASEs. SETTING: An online survey sent via email on three separate occasions between November and December 2016. PARTICIPANTS: All National Institutes of Health career development awardees funded in the 2015 fiscal year. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Factors associated with the amount of time spent addressing ASEs. RESULTS: A total of 3492 surveys were emailed, of which 206 (5.9%) were returned as undeliverable and 96 (2.7%) reported an out-of-office message; our overall response rate was 22.3% (n=733). All respondents reported receiving ASEs, with the majority (54.4%) receiving between 1 and 10 per day and spending between 1 and 10 min each day evaluating them. The amount of time respondents reported spending on ASEs was associated with the number of peer-reviewed journal articles authored (p<0.001), a history of publishing in open access format (p<0.01), the total number of ASEs received (p<0.001) and a feeling of having missed opportunities due to ignoring these emails (p=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: ASEs are a common distraction for career development grantees that may impact faculty productivity. There is an urgent need to mitigate this growing problem

    Adaptations to tree-gouging in the anterior masticatory apparatus of marmosets (callithrix) [abstract]

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    Although all genera of Callitrichinae engage in exudativory to some degree, marmosets (Callithrix, Cebuella) take advantage of exudates to the greatest extent. To facilitate exudate feeding, marmosets use their anterior teeth to gouge holes in bark and actively stimulate gum flow. As such, their anterior mandibular teethpossess specialized adaptations such as thickened labial enamel. Marmosets alsoshow masticatory features that facilitate increased gape, but do not appear to generate relatively large bite forces during gouging. However, even without increased bite force the anterior teeth of gougers likely experience different loading patternscompared to non-gouging platyrrhines. Specifically, one might expect that theanterior teeth and symphysis of marmosets are adapted to accommodate relatively high stresses linked to dissipating forces from yield-resistant and tough tree barks. This study uses histological data from thin- sectioned teeth, microCT data of jaws and teeth, and macroscale tests of simulated symphyseal loads to compare the micro- and macro-architecture of the anterior masticatory apparatus in Callithrix and Saguinus (as well as the outgroup Saimiri). Callithrix differs from the other genera in that its canine enamel possesses a much higher degree of decussation, and its anterior tooth roots are larger relative to alveolar bone volume. However, simulated jaw loading suggests a reduced ability to withstand external forces in the marmoset symphysis. The contrast between increased load-resistance ability in the anterior dentition versus relatively reduced symphyseal strength suggests both a potentially complex loading environment during gouging and a mosaic pattern of dentofacial adaptations to this derived biting behavior

    Ensuring Compliance From 35,000 Feet: Accountability and Trade-Offs in Aviation Safety Regulatory Networks

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    A puzzle that faces public administrators within regulatory networks is how to balance the need for public or democratic accountability with increasing demands from interest groups and elected officials to utilize the expertise of the private sector in developing process-oriented programs that ensure compliance. This article builds upon the network governance accountability framework developed by Koliba, Mills, and Zia to explore the dominant accountability frames and the accountability trade-offs that shape the process-oriented regulatory regime used by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to oversee and regulate air carriers in the United States
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