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    Comments on the measurement of power spectra of the interplanetary magnetic field

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    Examination of possible noise sources in the measurement of the power spectrum of fluctuations in the interplanetary magnetic field shows that most measurements by fluxgate magnetometers are limited by digitization noise whereas the search coil magnetometer is limited by instrument noise. The folding of power about the Nyquist frequency or aliasing can be a serious problem at times for many magnetometers, but it is not serious during typical solar wind conditions except near the Nyquist frequency. Waves in the solar wind associated with the presence of the earth's bow shock can contaminate the interplanetary spectrum in the vicinity of the earth. However, at times the spectrum in this region is the same as far from the earth. Doppler shifting caused by the convection of waves by the solar wind makes the interpretation of interplanetary spectra difficult

    Data reduction and analysis of ISEE magnetometer experiment

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    The ISEE-1 and -2 magnetometer data was reduced. The up and downstream turbulence associated with interplanetary shocks were studied, including methods of determining shock normals, and the similarities and differences in laminar and quasi-laminar shock structure. The associated up and downstream turbulence was emphasized. The distributions of flux transfer events, field aligned currents in the near tail, and substorm dynamics in the magnetotail were also investigated

    Facilitating researcher use of flight simulators

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    Researchers conducting experiments with flight simulators encounter numerous obstacles in bringing their ideas to the simulator. Research into how these simulators could be used more efficiently is presented. The study involved: (1) analyzing the Advanced Concepts Simulator software architecture, (2) analyzing the interaction between the researchers and simulation programmers, and (3) proposing a documentation tool for the researchers

    Dynamic attentional modulation of vision across space and time after right hemisphere stroke and in ageing

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    This article is available open access and is shared under a Creative Commons licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/). Copyright @ 2012 Elsevier Ltd.Introduction - Attention modulates the availability of sensory information to conscious perception. In particular, there is evidence of pathological, spatial constriction of the effective field of vision in patients with right hemisphere damage when a central task exhausts available attentional capacity. In the current study we first examined whether this constriction might be modulated across both space and time in right hemisphere stroke patients without neglect. Then we tested healthy elderly people to determine whether non-pathological ageing also leads to spatiotemporal impairments of vision under conditions of high attention load. Methods - Right hemisphere stroke patients completed a task at fixation while attempting to discriminate letters appearing in the periphery. Attentional load of the central task was modulated by increasing task difficulty. Peripheral letters appeared simultaneously with the central task or at different times (stimulus onset asynchronies, SOAs) after it. In a second study healthy elderly volunteers were tested with a modified version of this paradigm. Results - Under conditions of high attention load right hemisphere stroke patients have a reduced effective visual field, over a significantly extended ‘attentional blink’, worse for items presented to their left. In the second study, older participants were unable to discriminate otherwise salient items across the visual field (left or right) when their attention capacity was loaded on the central task. This deficit extended temporally, with peripheral discrimination ability not returning to normal for up to 450 msec. Conclusions - Dynamically tying up attention resources on a task at fixation can have profound effects in patient populations and in normal ageing. These results demonstrate that items can escape conscious detection across space and time, and can thereby impact significantly on visual perception in these groups.The European Commission, Brunel University and the Wellcome Trust

    A Numerical Minimization Scheme for the Complex Helmholtz Equation

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    We use the work of Milton, Seppecher, and Bouchitt\'{e} on variational principles for waves in lossy media to formulate a finite element method for solving the complex Helmholtz equation that is based entirely on minimization. In particular, this method results in a finite element matrix that is symmetric positive-definite and therefore simple iterative descent methods and preconditioning can be used to solve the resulting system of equations. We also derive an error bound for the method and illustrate the method with numerical experiments.Comment: 18 pages, 4 figure

    Harnessing motivation to alleviate neglect

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    This article is made available through the Brunel Open Access Publishing Fund. Copyright: © 2013 Russell, Li and Malhotra. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in other forums, provided the original authors and source are credited and subject to any copyright notices concerning any third-party graphics etc.The syndrome of spatial neglect results from the combination of a number of deficits in attention, with patients demonstrating both spatially lateralized and non-lateralized impairments. Previous reports have hinted that there may be a motivational component to neglect and that modulating this might alleviate some of the debilitating symptoms. Additionally, recent work on the effects of reward on attention in healthy participants has revealed improvements across a number of paradigms. As the primary deficit in neglect has been associated with attention, this evidence for reward's effects is potentially important. However, until very recently there have been few empirical studies addressing this potential therapeutic avenue. Here we review the growing body of evidence that attentional impairments in neglect can be reduced by motivation, for example in the form of preferred music or anticipated monetary reward, and discuss the implications of this for treatments for these patients. Crucially these effects of positive motivation are not observed in all patients with neglect, suggesting that the consequences of motivation may relate to individual lesion anatomy. Given the key role of dopaminergic systems in motivational processes, we suggest that motivational stimulation might act as a surrogate for dopaminergic stimulation. In addition, we consider the relationship between clinical post stroke apathy and lack of response to motivation

    Magnetospheric studies using the UKS data

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    The magnetic field data from the UKS spacecraft were analyzed to learn more about the solar wind interaction with the Earth's magnetosphere and about the magnetosphere itself. The data was reduced from raw experimenter data records to engineering units. The evolution of the waves in the foreshock, the varying structure of the bow shock along the boundary, simultaneous behavior of the magnetopause in the north and south hemisphere and MHD waves in the magnetosphere and magnetosheath were examined