10 research outputs found

    An√°lisis de patrones en asaltos de espada de alto nivel

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    El objetivo de este estudio fue la caracterizaci√≥n t√©cnico-t√°ctica de¬†las acciones de combate en asaltos de esgrima de competici√≥n, determinando¬†su eficacia en funci√≥n del per√≠odo del asalto en que se realizan, analizando el¬†tiempo efectivo de combate y de pausa, e identificando si existen regularidades¬†en las conductas de los esgrimistas en competici√≥n. Para ello se utiliz√≥ un dise√Īo¬†observacional puntual, nomot√©tico y multidimensional. El instrumento¬†observacional ESGRIMOBS fue validado mediante un panel de expertos compuesto¬†por 17 especialistas. Se utiliz√≥ como instrumento de registro el programaLINCE, y los registros obtenidos fueron tratados y recodi&cados a trav√©s¬†del programa Microsoft¬ģ Office Excel¬ģ 2013. El an√°lisis estad√≠stico descriptivo¬†e inferencial se realiz√≥ mediante el programa PASW Statistics para Windows¬†y el an√°lisis de patrones a trav√©s de <eme. La &abilidad en la observaci√≥n se¬†determin√≥ mediante el grado de concordancia intra e interobservador. Se analizaron¬†14 asaltos del Campeonato del Mundo de espada masculina de categor√≠a¬†absoluta. El 43,1% (¬Ī13,3) de las acciones analizadas fueron eficaces, apreci√°ndose¬†un claro incremento de la e&cacia en el transcurso del asalto. A medida¬†que avanza el asalto el tiempo efectivo de combate disminuye y se alargan los¬†tiempos de pausa. Se identificaron 72 T-Patterns que mostraron distintas regularidades¬†en los 14 combates analizados. En conclusi√≥n, se dispone de una¬†herramienta v√°lida para el an√°lisis t√©cnico-t√°ctico y de la estructura temporal¬†de asaltos de esgrima, pudiendo configurarse la detecci√≥n de T-Patterns como¬†una nueva estrategia cualitativa en el an√°lisis t√°ctico de la esgrima

    Fasciola hepatica induces eosinophil apoptosis in the migratory and biliary stages of infection in sheep

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    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the number of apoptotic eosinophils in the livers of sheep experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica during the migratory and biliary stages of infection. Four groups (n = 5) of sheep were used; groups 1‚Äď3 were orally infected with 200 metacercariae (mc) and sacrificed at 8 and 28 days post-infection (dpi), and 17 weeks post-infection (wpi), respectively. Group 4 was used as an uninfected control. Apoptosis was detected using immunohistochemistry with a polyclonal antibody against anti-active caspase-3, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Eosinophils were identified using the Hansel stain in serial sections for caspase-3, and by ultrastructural features using TEM. At 8 and 28 dpi, numerous caspase-3+ eosinophils were mainly found at the periphery of acute hepatic necrotic foci. The percentage of caspase -3+ apoptotic eosinophils in the periphery of necrotic foci was high (46.1‚Äď53.9) at 8 and 28 dpi, respectively, and decreased in granulomas found at 28 dpi (6%). Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of apoptotic eosinophils in hepatic lesions at 8 and 28 dpi. At 17 wpi, apoptotic eosinophils were detected in the infiltrate surrounding some enlarged bile ducts containing adult flukes. This is the first report of apoptosis induced by F. hepatica in sheep and the first study reporting apoptosis in eosinophils in hepatic inflammatory infiltrates in vivo. The high number of apoptotic eosinophils in acute necrotic tracts during the migratory and biliary stages of infection suggests that eosinophil apoptosis may play a role in F. hepatica survival during different stages of infection

    Apoptosis of peritoneal leucocytes during early stages of Fasciola hepatica infections in sheep

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    Several immunomodulatory properties have been described in Fasciola hepatica infections. Apoptosis has been shown to be an effective mechanism to avoid the immune response in helminth infections. The aim of the present work was to study apoptosis in peritoneal leucocytes of sheep experimentally infected with F. hepatica during the early stages of infection. Five groups (n = 5) of sheep were used. Groups 2‚Äď5 were orally infected with 200 metacercariae (mc) and sacrificed at 1, 3, 9 and 18 days post-infection (dpi), respectively. Group 1 was used as the uninfected control (UC). Apoptosis was detected using three different methods 1) immunocytochemistry (ICC) with a polyclonal antibody anti-active caspase-3; 2) an annexin V flow cytometry assay using the Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide (PI); and 3) transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The differential leucocyte count revealed that the majority of peritoneal granulocytes were eosinophils, which increased significantly at 9 and 18 dpi with respect to the uninfected controls. The ICC study revealed that the percentage of caspase-3+ apoptotic peritoneal leucocytes increased significantly from 3 dpi onwards with respect to the uninfected controls. The flow cytometry annexin V assay detected a very significant (P < 0.001) increase of apoptotic peritoneal macrophages, lymphocytes and granulocytes, which remained higher than in the UC until 18 dpi. Transmission electron microscopy studies also confirmed the presence of apoptosis in peritoneal eosinophils at 18 dpi. This is the first report of apoptosis induced by F. hepatica in the peritoneal leucocytes of sheep in vivo. The results of this work suggest the importance of apoptosis induction for the survival of the juvenile parasites in the peritoneal migratory stages of infection

    Describing Images Using Qualitative Models and Description Logics

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    Special Issue: Qualitative spatial and temporal reasoning: emerging applications, trends, and directionsOur approach describes any digital image qualitatively by detecting regions/objects inside it and describing their visual characteristics (shape and colour) and their spatial characteristics (orientation and topology) by means of qualitative models. The description obtained is translated into a description logic (DL) based ontology, which gives a formal and explicit meaning to the qualitative tags representing the visual features of the objects in the image and the spatial relations between them. For any image, our approach obtains a set of individuals that are classified using a DL reasoner according to the descriptions of our ontolog

    Desigualdades de g√©nero en la investigaci√≥n en salud p√ļblica y epidemiolog√≠a en Espa√Īa (2007-2014)

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    [EN] Objective: To analyse gender inequalities in research on public health and epidemiology in Spain for theperiod 2007-2014.Method: A descriptive study was conducted by sex of leadership positions in the Centre for BiomedicalResearch Network (CIBER), especially in the subject area of epidemiology and public health (CIBERESP) in2014; scientific societies of public health (SESPAS) and epidemiology (SEE) 2009-2014; research projectsrequested (13,320) and financed (4,699), and monetary amounts of calls for Strategic Action in Health(AES), 2007-2013. Results: Women were clearly under-represented in positions of leadership and in research excellencein public health (CIBER), with a predominance of men in decision-making positions. Although researchprojects led by women in AES increased slightly between 2007 and 2013, among proposed projects thisfigure was less than 50%, with the exception of the public health commission. The gender gap was even greater in funded projects. Projects led by men were more likely to be funded, representing 29% in publichealth. There was also a persistence of horizontal gender segregation in positions of scientific recognitionin the SESPAS and SEE Congresses. Conclusions: The over representation of male leaders in public health research in Spain can be understoodas an indicator and a consequence of androcentrism in scientific societies and professional groups. Thissexist situation threatens the existence of innovative products and services from a gender perspectivethat respond to the needs and demands of society as a whole. More women are needed in researchincorporating this perspective.¬© 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espa√Īa, S.L.U. All rights reserved.[ES] Objetivo: Analizar las desigualdades de g√©nero en investigaci√≥n en salud p√ļblica y epidemiolog√≠a enEspa√Īaa, en el periodo 2007-2014.M√©todo: Estudio descriptivo seg√ļn sexo de posiciones de liderazgo del Centro de Investigaci√≥n Biom√©dicaen Red (CIBER), especialmente en el √°rea tem√°tica de epidemiolog√≠a y salud p√ļblica (CIBERESP) en 2014;de sociedades cient√≠ficas de salud p√ļblica (SESPAS) y epidemiolog√≠a (SEE), 2009-2014; y de proyectos deinvestigaci√≥n solicitados (13.320) y financiados (4699), e importes de convocatorias de Acci√≥n Estrat√©gica en Salud (AES), 2007-2013. Resultados: Existe una clara infrarrepresentaci√≥n de mujeres l√≠deres y contratadas en investigaci√≥n deexcelencia en salud p√ļblica (CIBERESP), con predominio de los hombres en puestos de decisi√≥n. Aunque los proyectos de investigaci√≥n de la Acci√≥n Estrat√©gica en Salud (AES) liderados por mujeres han crecido ligeramente entre 2007 y 2013, entre los solicitados no alcanzan el 50%, con excepci√≥n de los de la Comisi√≥n de Salud P√ļblica. La brecha de g√©nero es a√ļn mayor en proyectos financiados. Los proyectos liderados por hombres tienen mayor probabilidad de obtener financiaci√≥n, alcanzando el 29% en los desalud p√ļblica. Persiste una segregaci√≥n horizontal de g√©nero en posiciones de reconocimiento cient√≠ficoen congresos de SESPAS y SEE. Conclusiones: La sobrerrepresentaci√≥n de l√≠deres masculinos en la investigaci√≥n en salud p√ļblica en Espa√Īa debe entenderse como indicador y consecuencia del androcentrismo en las sociedades cient√≠ficasy los grupos profesionales. Esta situaci√≥n sexista pone en riesgo la existencia de productos y serviciosinnovadores desde la perspectiva de g√©nero que den respuestas a necesidades y demandas de toda lasociedad. Se necesitan m√°s mujeres en investigaci√≥n que tengan incorporada esta perspectiva.¬© 2015 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier Espa√Īa, S.L.U. Todos los derechos reservadosEste trabajo ha recibido financiaci√≥n parcial de la Acci√≥n Estrat√©gica en Salud del Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Exp. PI12/00498) yFondos FEDER.Peer reviewe

    Identification of BiP as a CB1 receptor-interacting protein that fine-tunes cannabinoid signaling in the mouse brain

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    Cannabinoids, the bioactive constituents of cannabis, exert a wide array of effects on the brain by engaging type-1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R). Accruing evidence supports that cannabinoid action relies on context-dependent factors such as the biological characteristics of the target cell, suggesting that cell population-intrinsic molecular cues modulate CB1R-dependent signaling. Here, by using a yeast two-hybrid-based high-throughput screening, we identified BiP as a potential CB1R-interacting protein. We next found that CB1R and BiP interact specifically in vitro, and mapped the interaction site within the CB1R C-terminal (intracellular) domain and the BiP C-terminal (substrate-binding) domain-őĪ. BiP selectively shaped agonist-evoked CB1R signaling by blocking an 'alternative' Gq/11 protein-dependent signaling module, while leaving the 'classical' Gi/o protein-dependent inhibition of the cAMP pathway unaffected. In situ proximity ligation assays conducted on brain samples from various genetic mouse models of conditional loss or gain of CB1R expression allowed to map CB1R-BiP complexes selectively on terminals of GABAergic neurons. Behavioral studies using cannabinoid-treated male BiP+/- mice supported that CB1R-BiP complexes modulate cannabinoid-evoked anxiety, one of the most frequent undesired effects of cannabis. Altogether, by identifying BiP as a CB1R-interacting protein that controls receptor function in a signaling pathway- and neuron population-selective manner, our findings may help to understand the striking context-dependent actions of cannabis in the brain

    Relationship of runoff, erosion and sediment yield to weather types in the Iberian Peninsula

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    Precipitation has been recognized as one of the main factors driving soil erosion and sediment yield (SY), and its spatial and temporal variability is recognized as one of themain reasons for spatial and temporal analyses of soil erosion variability. The weather types (WTs) approach classifies the continuumof atmospheric circulation into a small number of categories or types and has been proven a good indicator of the spatial and temporal variability of precipitation. Thus, themain objective of this study is to analyze the relationship betweenWTs, runoff, soil erosion (measured in plots), and sediment yield (measured in catchments) in different areas of the Iberian Peninsula (IP) with the aimof detecting spatial variations in these relationships. To this end, hydrological and sediment information covering the IP from several Spanish research teams has been combined, and related with daily WTs estimated by using the NMC/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project. The results showthat, in general, a fewWTs (particularly westerly, southwesterly and cyclonic) provide the largest amounts of precipitation; and southwesterly, northwesterly and westerly WTs play an important role in runoff generation, erosion and sediment yield as they coincide with the wettest WTs. However, this study highlights the spatial variability of erosion and sediment yield in the IP according to WT, differentiating (1) areas under the influence of north and/or north-westerly flows (the north coast of Cantabria and inland central areas), (2) areas under the influence of westerly, southwesterly and cyclonic WTs (western and southwestern IP), (3) areas in which erosion and sediment yield are controlled by easterly flows (Mediterranean coastland), and (4) lastly, a transitional zone in the inland northeast Ebro catchment,wherewe detected a high variability in the effects ofWTs on erosion. Overall results suggest that the use of WTs derived fromobserved atmospheric pressure patterns could be a useful tool for inclusion in future projections of the spatial variability of erosion and sediment yield, as models capture pressure fields reliably

    Relationship of weather types on the seasonal and spatial variability of rainfall, runoff, and sediment yield in the western Mediterranean basin

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    Summarization: Rainfall is the key factor to understand soil erosion processes, mechanisms, and rates. Most research was conducted to determine rainfall characteristics and their relationship with soil erosion (erosivity) but there is little information about how atmospheric patterns control soil losses, and this is important to enable sustainable environmental planning and risk prevention. We investigated the temporal and spatial variability of the relationships of rainfall, runoff, and sediment yield with atmospheric patterns (weather types, WTs) in the western Mediterranean basin. For this purpose, we analyzed a large database of rainfall events collected between 1985 and 2015 in 46 experimental plots and catchments with the aim to: (i) evaluate seasonal differences in the contribution of rainfall, runoff, and sediment yield produced by the WTs; and (ii) to analyze the seasonal efficiency of the different WTs (relation frequency and magnitude) related to rainfall, runoff, and sediment yield. The results indicate two different temporal patterns: the first weather type exhibits (during the cold period: autumn and winter) westerly flows that produce the highest rainfall, runoff, and sediment yield values throughout the territory; the second weather type exhibits easterly flows that predominate during the warm period (spring and summer) and it is located on the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula. However, the cyclonic situations present high frequency throughout the whole year with a large influence extended around the western Mediterranean basin. Contrary, the anticyclonic situations, despite of its high frequency, do not contribute significantly to the total rainfall, runoff, and sediment (showing the lowest efficiency) because of atmospheric stability that currently characterize this atmospheric pattern. Our approach helps to better understand the relationship of WTs on the seasonal and spatial variability of rainfall, runoff and sediment yield with a regional scale based on the large dataset and number of soil erosion experimental stations.Presented on: Atmospher
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