843 research outputs found

    Analisis Adopsi Inovasi Teknologi Pertanian Berbasis Padi di Sumatera Selatan dalam Perspektif Komunikasi

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    Analysis of Adoption of Agricultural Technology Innovation Rice-based Farming in Sumatra inthe perspective of communications. Assessment Institute of Agricultural Technology (AIAT) South Sumatrahas produced innovative rice-based farming technology in various agroecosystem. However, adoption ratesare still relatively low. Evaluation of four assessments aimed to identify the factors that predominantly affectthe adoption of technological innovation based local-specific farming rice and to know the level of adoption.This activity is carried out in OKI, East OKU and Banyuasin regencies with 67 respondents interviewedin July-September 2007. The results of this assessment showed that the factors that influence the adoption oftechnological innovations such as the level of selective exposure of technology innovation, cosmopolite,triability, complexity of technology and agricultural extension intensity. The average adoption index for thepacket of rice cultivation technology was 50.32%. As many as 93.02% of respondents have positive perceptionsof the researcher-extension AIAT South Sumatra as the communicator in delivering information technology.Most respondents (80%) expressed a desire to obtain agricultural information generated AIAT South Sumatra.Key words: Adoption, innovation, rice, communication Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian (BPTP) Sumatera Selatan sudah menghasilkan inovasi teknologipertanian berbasis padi di berbagai agroekosistem. Namun tingkat adopsinya masih relatif rendah. Evaluasi terhadapempat pengkajian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi faktor-faktor yang dominan mempengaruhi proses adopsiinovasi teknologi pertanian spesifik lokasi berbasis padi dan mengetahui tingkat adopsinya. Kegiatan ini dilakukan diKabupaten OKI, OKU Timur dan Banyuasin dengan mewawancarai 67 orang responden pada bulan Juli – September2007. Berdasarkan hasil analisis deskriptif kualitatif diketahui bahwa (1) adopsi inovasi teknologi budidaya tanamanpadi di Sumatera Selatan dipengaruhi oleh tingkat kebutuhan petani terhadap inovasi teknologi, sifat kekosmopolitanpetani, triabilitas dan kompleksitas teknologi dan intensitas pembinaan, (2) indeks adopsi inovasi petani terhadappaket teknologi budidaya padi kondisinya beragam tergantung pada jenis kegiatan, (3) petani di Sumatera Selatanumumnya memberikan apresiasi positif terhadap peneliti-penyuluh BPTP Sumatera Selatan, terlihat dari tingginyaminat petani untuk mendapatkan berbagai media informasi pertanian BPTP Sumatera Selatan, dan (4) temuankajian ini mengindikasikan faktor komunikasi memegang peran utama yang dapat mempengaruhi adopsi teknologi

    Agricultural Education for Sustainable Rural Development in Developing Countries – Challenges and Policy Options

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    Governments all over the world have focused upon sustainable rural development in an organized way. Rural locations, in particular, need more economic development in order to match urban centric development. Poverty in rural areas has remained by and large, the main focal point of governments and development agencies. Sustainable rural development is the most effective way to eliminate this curse. Environment friendly growth stimulators have been provided to rural populations. This paper aims to: (a) give an insight into the linkages between the agricultural education and sustainable rural development, and (b) present strategies for sustainable rural development. Challenges in sustainable rural development for developing countries in the 21st century have also been looked into. The paper concludes that agricultural education institutions in developing countries will need to address not only immediate production needs, but also long-term food security, sustainable agriculture and rural development needs

    Analisa Kepuasan Konsumen Di Restaurant “X” Di Surabaya

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    Penelitian ini ditunjukan untuk menganalisa tingkat kesenjangan antara harapan dari konsumen terhadap Kenyataan yang diterima oleh konsumen dan mengukur tingkat kepuasan konsumen di Restoran “X” dengan menggunakan atribut DINESERV. Penelitian ini menggunakan Importance Performance Analysis(IPA). Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah kesenjangan antara harapan dan Kenyataan yang diukur menggunakan atribut DINESERV adalah Kenyataan yang diterima oleh konsumen sangat tidak sesuai dengan harapan konsumen dan konsumen sangat tidak puas terutama dengan atribut Convenience Restoran yaitu Jarak dari Restoran “X” di Surabay

    <i>ortho-</i>Directing Chromium Arene Complexes as Efficient Mediators for Enantiospecific C(sp<sup>2</sup>)–C(sp<sup>3</sup>) Cross-Coupling Reactions

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    <p>Supplemental material, supplementary_table_6 for HDAC3-mediated silencing of miR-451 decreases chemosensitivity of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer by targeting NEDD9 by Dong-qin Chen, Chen Yu, Xue-feng Zhang, Zhong-fang Liu, Rui Wang, Min Jiang, Hao Chen, Feng Yan, Min Tao, Long-bang Chen, Hong Zhu and Ji-feng Feng in Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology</p

    Mechanism of catalysed solvent-mediated coal liquefaction

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    This thesis describes a study of the control of the reaction chemistry of the coal dissolution stage of a two-stage coal liquefaction process through the use of catalysts to produce coal liquids more amenable to secondary upgrading, particular emphasis being placed on investigating the feasibility of using "spent" or "deactivated" catalysts from, for example, upgrading of coal-derived liquids, to promote solvent-mediated coal dissolution in an inert atmosphere, such systems having an appreciable impact on process economICS. The coal dissolution reaction was carried out using a tubing bomb micro-reactor, primarily, with British Point of Ayr coal in recycle solvent using a range of Mo based catalysts, both fresh and "spent", under a variety of reaction conditions. Initially the influence of the catalysts on single model solvents, such as tetralin, 9, I O-dihydroanthracene and phenanthrene, and binary and ternary blends of these model solvent was investigated in order to establish whether the catalysts had any effect on the solvent itself and/or on any interaction between them. This work demonstrated that the catalysts did indeed exert an effect on the reaction chemistry of the solvents. In all instances the catalysts were effective in promoting the dehydrogenation of the solvents and this reaction can be used as a base of ranking various catalysts. It has been found from the coal dissolution investigation that the coal dissolution under the reaction conditions used, is primarily a thermolytic process. The temperature for significant coal dissolution with a IS min reaction period was 3S0°C and the reaction was complete within 30 min at 42S°C. Increase in temperature above 3S0°C increased coal dissolution and evidence was obtained to indicate some merit in operating at a temperature as high as 4S0°C, but at short reaction time. The influence of the catalyst was to enhance the yield of low molecular weight materials in the dissolution products and in this way benefited the first stage of a two-stage coal liquefaction process. The catalytic activity was maintained at low concentration of Mo 0.01 wt% (daf coal). The rate of coal dissolution is highly coal rank dependent with the higher rank coals showing little propensity for dissolution. On the other hand, limited evidence was obtained indicating that the blending of coals, which are susceptible to dissolution, may be advantageous with some synergistic effect

    DataSheet_3_Lipid turnover and SQUAMOSA promoter-binding proteins mediate variation in fatty acid desaturation under early nitrogen deprivation revealed by lipidomic and transcriptomic analyses in Chlorella pyrenoidosa.docx

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    Nitrogen deprivation induces variations in fatty acid desaturation in microalgae, which determines the performance of biodiesel and the nutritional value of bioproducts. However, the detailed scenario and the underlying regulatory mechanism remain unclear. In this study, we attempt to outline these scenario and mechanisms by performing biochemical, lipidomic, and transcriptomic analyses in Chlorella pyrenoidosa and functional characterization of transcription factors in Yarrowia lipolytica. We found that early nitrogen deprivation dramatically reduced fatty acid desaturation without increasing lipid content. The contents of palmitic acid (16:0) and oleic acid (18:1) dramatically increased to 2.14 and 2.87 times that of nitrogen repletion on the second day, respectively. Lipidomic analysis showed the transfer of polyunsaturated fatty acids from phospholipids and glycolipids to triacylglycerols, and an increase in lipid species with 16:0 or 18:1 under nitrogen deprivation conditions. Upregulated stearoyl-ACP desaturase and oleyl-ACP thioesterase promoted the synthesis of 18:1, but restricted acetyl-CoA supply revealed that it was the intensive lipid turnover instead of an attenuated Kennedy pathway that played an important role in the variation in fatty acid composition under early nitrogen deprivation. Finally, two differentially expressed SQUAMOSA promoter-binding proteins (SBPs) were heterologously expressed in Y. lipolytica, demonstrating their role in promoting the accumulation of total fatty acid and the reduction in fatty acid desaturation. These results revealed the crucial role of lipid turnover and SBPs in determining fatty acid desaturation under early nitrogen deprivation, opening new avenues for the metabolic engineering of fatty acid desaturation in microalgae.</p

    Image_1_Lipid turnover and SQUAMOSA promoter-binding proteins mediate variation in fatty acid desaturation under early nitrogen deprivation revealed by lipidomic and transcriptomic analyses in Chlorella pyrenoidosa.tif

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    Nitrogen deprivation induces variations in fatty acid desaturation in microalgae, which determines the performance of biodiesel and the nutritional value of bioproducts. However, the detailed scenario and the underlying regulatory mechanism remain unclear. In this study, we attempt to outline these scenario and mechanisms by performing biochemical, lipidomic, and transcriptomic analyses in Chlorella pyrenoidosa and functional characterization of transcription factors in Yarrowia lipolytica. We found that early nitrogen deprivation dramatically reduced fatty acid desaturation without increasing lipid content. The contents of palmitic acid (16:0) and oleic acid (18:1) dramatically increased to 2.14 and 2.87 times that of nitrogen repletion on the second day, respectively. Lipidomic analysis showed the transfer of polyunsaturated fatty acids from phospholipids and glycolipids to triacylglycerols, and an increase in lipid species with 16:0 or 18:1 under nitrogen deprivation conditions. Upregulated stearoyl-ACP desaturase and oleyl-ACP thioesterase promoted the synthesis of 18:1, but restricted acetyl-CoA supply revealed that it was the intensive lipid turnover instead of an attenuated Kennedy pathway that played an important role in the variation in fatty acid composition under early nitrogen deprivation. Finally, two differentially expressed SQUAMOSA promoter-binding proteins (SBPs) were heterologously expressed in Y. lipolytica, demonstrating their role in promoting the accumulation of total fatty acid and the reduction in fatty acid desaturation. These results revealed the crucial role of lipid turnover and SBPs in determining fatty acid desaturation under early nitrogen deprivation, opening new avenues for the metabolic engineering of fatty acid desaturation in microalgae.</p

    A Unified Description of Salt Effects on the Liquid–Liquid Phase Separation of Proteins

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    Protein aggregation via liquid–liquid phase separation (LLPS) is ubiquitous in nature and is intimately connected to many human diseases. Although it is widely known that the addition of salt has crucial impacts on the LLPS of proteins, full understanding of the salt effects remains an outstanding challenge. Here, we develop a molecular theory that systematically incorporates the self-consistent field theory for charged macromolecules into the solution thermodynamics. The electrostatic interaction, hydrophobicity, ion solvation, and translational entropy are included in a unified framework. Our theory fully captures the long-standing puzzles of the nonmonotonic salt concentration dependence and the specific ion effect. We find that proteins show salting-out at low salt concentrations due to ionic screening. The solubility follows the inverse Hofmeister series. In the high salt concentration regime, protein continues salting-out for small ions but turns to salting-in for larger ions, accompanied by the reversal of the Hofmeister series. We reveal that the solubility at high salt concentrations is determined by the competition between the solvation energy and translational entropy of the ion. Furthermore, we derive an analytical criterion for determining the boundary between the salting-in and salting-out regimes, which is in good agreement with experimental results for various proteins and salt ions

    DataSheet_1_Lipid turnover and SQUAMOSA promoter-binding proteins mediate variation in fatty acid desaturation under early nitrogen deprivation revealed by lipidomic and transcriptomic analyses in Chlorella pyrenoidosa.xlsx

    No full text
    Nitrogen deprivation induces variations in fatty acid desaturation in microalgae, which determines the performance of biodiesel and the nutritional value of bioproducts. However, the detailed scenario and the underlying regulatory mechanism remain unclear. In this study, we attempt to outline these scenario and mechanisms by performing biochemical, lipidomic, and transcriptomic analyses in Chlorella pyrenoidosa and functional characterization of transcription factors in Yarrowia lipolytica. We found that early nitrogen deprivation dramatically reduced fatty acid desaturation without increasing lipid content. The contents of palmitic acid (16:0) and oleic acid (18:1) dramatically increased to 2.14 and 2.87 times that of nitrogen repletion on the second day, respectively. Lipidomic analysis showed the transfer of polyunsaturated fatty acids from phospholipids and glycolipids to triacylglycerols, and an increase in lipid species with 16:0 or 18:1 under nitrogen deprivation conditions. Upregulated stearoyl-ACP desaturase and oleyl-ACP thioesterase promoted the synthesis of 18:1, but restricted acetyl-CoA supply revealed that it was the intensive lipid turnover instead of an attenuated Kennedy pathway that played an important role in the variation in fatty acid composition under early nitrogen deprivation. Finally, two differentially expressed SQUAMOSA promoter-binding proteins (SBPs) were heterologously expressed in Y. lipolytica, demonstrating their role in promoting the accumulation of total fatty acid and the reduction in fatty acid desaturation. These results revealed the crucial role of lipid turnover and SBPs in determining fatty acid desaturation under early nitrogen deprivation, opening new avenues for the metabolic engineering of fatty acid desaturation in microalgae.</p
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