187 research outputs found

    Influence of atomic polarization and horizontal illumination on the Stokes profiles of the He I 10830 multiplet

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    The polarization observed in the spectral lines of the He I 10830 multiplet carries valuable information on the dynamical and magnetic properties of plasma structures in the solar chromosphere and corona, such as spicules, prominences, filaments, emerging magnetic flux regions, etc. Here we investigate the influence of atomic level polarization on the emergent Stokes profiles for a broad range of magnetic field strengths, in both 90 degree and forward scattering geometry. We show that, contrary to a widespread belief, the selective emission and absorption processes caused by the presence of atomic level polarization may have an important influence on the emergent linear polarization, even for magnetic field strengths as large as 1000 G. Consequently, the modeling of the Stokes Q and U profiles should not be done by taking only into account the contribution of the transverse Zeeman effect within the framework of the Paschen-Back effect theory, unless the magnetic field intensity of the observed plasma structure is sensibly larger than 1000 G. We point out also that in low-lying optically thick plasma structures, such as those of active region filaments, the (horizontal) radiation field generated by the structure itself may substantially reduce the positive contribution to the anisotropy factor caused by the (vertical) radiation field coming from the underlying solar photosphere, so that the amount of atomic level polarization may turn out to be negligible. Only under such circumstances may the emergent linear polarization of the He I 10830 multiplet in such regions of the solar atmosphere be dominated by the contribution caused by the transverse Zeeman effect.Comment: Accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal (It is tentatively scheduled for the ApJ January 20, 2007 issue

    Characteristics of Magnetohydrodynamic Oscillations Observed with Michelson Doppler Imager

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    We report on the spatial distribution of magnetogram oscillatory power and phase angles between velocity and magnetogram signals as observed with the Michelson Doppler Imager. The dataset is 151.25 arcsec times 151.25 arcsec containing sunspot from Dec 2, 1997 with a temporal sampling interval of 60 seconds and spatial sampling of 0.605 arcsec. Simultaneously observed continuum intensity and surface velocity accompany the magnetic information. We focus on three frequency regimes: 0.5-1.0, 3.0-3.5 and 5.5-6.0 mHz corresponding roughly to timescales of magnetic evolution, p-modes and the 3 minute resonant sunspot oscillation. Significant low frequency magnetogram power is found in lower flux pixels, 100-300 Gauss, in a striking ring with filamentary structure surrounding sunspot. Five minute magnetogram power peaks in extended regions of flux 600-800 Gauss. The 3 minute oscillation is observed in sunspot umbra in pixels whose flux measures 1300-1500 Gauss. Phase angles of approximately -90 degrees between velocity and magnetic flux in the 3.0-3.5 and 5.5-6.0 mHz regimes are found in regions of significant cross amplitude.Comment: 4 Pages, 4 Figures -- For better Figure files see: http://www.astro.ucla.edu/~norton/pub_list.htm

    Polynomial Approximants for the Calculation of Polarization Profiles in the \ion{He}{1} 10830 \AA Multiplet

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    The \ion{He}{1} multiplet at 10830 \AA is formed in the incomplete Paschen-Back regime for typical conditions found in solar and stellar atmospheres. The positions and strengths of the various components that form the Zeeman structure of this multiplet in the Paschen-Back regime are approximated here by polynomials. The fitting errors are smaller than ∌10−2\sim10^{-2} m\AA in the component positions and ∌10−3\sim10^{-3} in the relative strengths. The approximant polynomials allow for a very fast implementation of the incomplete Paschen-Back regime in numerical codes for the synthesis and inversion of polarization profiles in this important multiplet.Comment: ApJ Supplements (in press

    Signatures of Incomplete Paschen-Back Splitting in the Polarization Profiles of the He I 10830 multiplet

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    We investigate the formation of polarization profiles induced by a magnetic field in the He I multiplet at 1083,0 nm . Our analysis considers the Zeeman splitting in the incomplete Paschen-Back regime. The effects turn out to be important and produce measurable signatures on the profiles, even for fields significantly weaker than the level-crossing field (∌\sim400 G). When compared to profiles calculated with the usual linear Zeeman effect, the incomplete Paschen-Back profiles exhibit the following conspicuous differences: a) a non-Doppler blueshift of the Stokes V zero-crossing wavelength of the blue component; b) area and peak asymmetries, even in the absence of velocity and magnetic gradients; c) a ∌\sim25% reduction in the amplitude of the red component. These features do not vanish in the weak field limit. The spectral signatures that we analyze in this paper may be found in previous observations published in the literature.Comment: Accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journa

    Evaluation of biological activity of Turkish plants. Rapid screening for the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory potential by TLC bioautographic methods

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    Using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) bioautography, a total of 58 extracts from various organs (aerial parts, leaves, flowers, fruits, roots) of 16 Turkish plants were tested for their antibacterial, antifungal, acetylcholinesterase inhibitory, antioxidant, and radical scavenging activities. The hexane, CHCl3/CH2Cl2, water, and total MeOH extracts were used. No activity was observed against two Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aureginosa) and the yeast Candida albicans. However, 23 plant extracts, mostly the CHCl3/CH2Cl2 and H2O-solubles, inhibited the growth of all five Gram-positive bacteria tested, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Of the active extracts, the CHCl3-soluble of the roots of Putoria calabrica (L. fil) DC (Rubiaceae) displayed the highest antibacterial potential. The majority of the CHCl3/CH2Cl2 crude extracts also appeared to inhibit acetylcholinesterase on TLC plates at 100 ”g/spot concentration. Particularly active samples were the middle polarity extracts (CHCl3/CH2Cl2) of the leaves of Rhododendron smirnovii Trautv., R. ponticum L., and R. ungernii Trautv. (Ericaceae). ÎČ-Carotene, ÎČ-carotene/linoleic acid mixture, and 2,2-diphenyl-l-pieryhydrazyl (DPPH) solutions sprayed onto TLC plates were used for detecting antioxidant and radical scavenging properties of the crude extracts. Antioxidant and radical scavenging activities were found to be predominant in highly polar extracts. The water-solubles of all Rhododendron (Ericaceae) and Phlomis (Lamiaceae) species presented the most significant activity

    The influence of coronal EUV irradiance on the emission in the He I 10830 A and D3 multiplets

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    Two of the most attractive spectral windows for spectropolarimetric investigations of the physical properties of the plasma structures in the solar chromosphere and corona are the ones provided by the spectral lines of the He I 10830 A and 5876 A (or D3) multiplets, whose polarization signals are sensitive to the Hanle and Zeeman effects. However, in order to be able to carry out reliable diagnostics, it is crucial to have a good physical understanding of the sensitivity of the observed spectral line radiation to the various competing driving mechanisms. Here we report a series of off-the-limb non-LTE calculations of the He I D3 and 10830 A emission profiles, focusing our investigation on their sensitivity to the EUV coronal irradiation and the model atmosphere used in the calculations. We show in particular that the intensity ratio of the blue to the red components in the emission profiles of the He I 10830 A multiplet turns out to be a good candidate as a diagnostic tool for the coronal irradiance. Measurements of this observable as a function of the distance to the limb and its confrontation with radiative transfer modeling might give us valuable information on the physical properties of the solar atmosphere and on the amount of EUV radiation at relevant wavelengths penetrating the chromosphere from above.Comment: 19 pages, 11 figures (pre-print format). Accepted for publication in Ap

    Theory and Modeling of the Zeeman and Paschen-Back effects in Molecular Lines

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    This paper describes a very general approach to the calculation of the Zeeman splitting effect produced by an external magnetic field on the rotational levels of diatomic molecules. The method is valid for arbitrary values of the total electronic spin and of the magnetic field strength -that is, it holds for molecular electronic states of any multiplicity and for both the Zeeman and incomplete Paschen-Back regimes. It is based on an efficient numerical diagonalization of the effective Zeeman Hamiltonian, which can incorporate easily all the contributions one may eventually be interested in, such as the hyperfine interaction of the external magnetic field with the spin motions of the nuclei. The reliability of the method is demonstrated by comparing our results with previous ones obtained via formulae valid only for doublet states. We also present results for molecular transitions arising between non-doublet electronic states, illustrating that their Zeeman patterns show signatures produced by the Paschen-Back effect.Comment: 35 pages, 11 figures, accepted for publication in Ap

    Observation and modeling of anomalous CN polarization profiles produced by the molecular Paschen-Back effect in sunspots

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    We report novel spectropolarimetric observations of sunspots carried out with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter (TIP) in a near-IR spectral region around 15410 A, which is known to contain two groups of prominent OH lines that show circular polarization signals of opposite polarity. Surrounding these well-known OH lines, we have discovered the presence of CN lines of the Δv=1\Delta v=1 band which show anomalous polarization profiles. Although the Stokes V signals of the OH lines are antisymmetric and with a sizable amplitude, the CN lines show almost negligible circular polarization. On the contrary, the linear polarization signals turn out to be much stronger in the CN lines than in the OH lines. Interestingly, these CN lines present striking antisymmetric linear polarization profiles, which we are able to explain and model via the Paschen-Back effect theory for diatomic molecules. The presence of such peculiar CN lines in the same spectral region of the OH lines may be useful to improve our empirical knowledge of solar magnetic fields via the simultaneous observation and modeling of the transverse and longitudinal Zeeman effects in two different molecular species.Comment: 11 pages, 3 figures, published in ApJ 623, L57 (2005

    Are there field-free gaps near tau=1 in sunspot penumbrae?

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    The vertical stratification of the magnetic field strength in sunspot penumbrae is investigated by means of spectropolarimetric observations at high spatial resolution from the Hinode spacecraft. Assuming that the magnetic field changes linearly with optical depth we find that, in those regions where the magnetic field is more inclined and the Evershed flow is strongest (penumbral intraspines), the magnetic field can either increase or decrease with depth. Allowing more degrees of freedom to the magnetic field stratification reveals that the magnetic field initially decreases from \log\tau_5 = -3 until \log\tau_5 \simeq -1.0, but increases again below that. The presence of strong magnetic fields near the continuum is at odds with the existence of regions void of magnetic fields at, or right below, the \tau_5=1 level in the penumbra. However, they are compatible with the presence of a horizontal flux-tube-like field embedded in a magnetic atmosphere.Comment: 10 pages, 11 figures (3 color figures, f2,f3,f5,f10,f11 low resolution). Accepted for publication in ApJ. To appear in issue 1, vol 686, October 200

    Genetics of adaptation in modern chicken

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    This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.We carried out whole genome resequencing of 127 chicken including red jungle fowl and multiple populations of commercial broilers and layers to perform a systematic screening of adaptive changes in modern chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). We uncovered >21 million high quality SNPs of which 34% are newly detected variants. This panel comprises >115,000 predicted amino-acid altering substitutions as well as 1,100 SNPs predicted to be stop-gain or -loss, several of which reach high frequencies. Signatures of selection were investigated both through analyses of fixation and differentiation to reveal selective sweeps that may have had prominent roles during domestication and breed development. Contrasting wild and domestic chicken we confirmed selection at the BCO2 and TSHR loci and identified 34 putative sweeps co-localized with ALX1, KITLG, EPGR, IGF1, DLK1, JPT2, CRAMP1, and GLI3, among others. Analysis of enrichment between groups of wild vs. commercials and broilers vs. layers revealed a further panel of candidate genes including CORIN, SKIV2L2 implicated in pigmentation and LEPR, MEGF10 and SPEF2, suggestive of production-oriented selection. SNPs with marked allele frequency differences between wild and domestic chicken showed a highly significant deficiency in the proportion of amino-acid altering mutations (P<2.5×10−6). The results contribute to the understanding of major genetic changes that took place during the evolution of modern chickens and in poultry breeding
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