7 research outputs found

    Transcriptomic profiling of human breast and melanoma cells selected by migration through narrow constraints

    Get PDF
    The metastatic spread of cancer cells is a step-wise process that starts with dissociation from primary tumours and local invasion of adjacent tissues. The ability to invade local tissues is the product of several processes, including degradation of extracellular matrices (ECM) and movement of tumour cells through physically-restricting gaps. To identify properties contributing to tumour cells squeezing through narrow gaps, invasive MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer and MDA-MB-435 human melanoma cells were subjected to three successive rounds of selection using cell culture inserts with highly constraining 3 μm pores. For comparison purposes, flow cytometry was also employed to enrich for small diameter MDA-MB-231 cells. RNA-Sequencing (RNA-seq) using the Illumina NextSeq 500 platform was undertaken to characterize how gene expression differed between parental, invasive pore selected or small diameter cells. Gene expression results obtained by RNA-seq were validated by comparing with RT-qPCR. Transcriptomic data generated could be used to determine how alterations that enable cell passage through narrow spaces contribute to local invasion and metastasis

    Migration through physical constraints is enabled by MAPK-induced cell softening via actin cytoskeleton re-organization

    Get PDF
    Cancer cells are softer than the normal cells, and metastatic cells are even softer. These changes in biomechanical properties contribute to cancer progression by facilitating cell movement through physically constraining environments. To identify properties that enabled passage through physical constraints, cells that were more efficient at moving through narrow membrane micropores were selected from established cell lines. By examining micropore-selected human MDA MB 231 breast cancer and MDA MB 435 melanoma cancer cells, membrane fluidity and nuclear elasticity were excluded as primary contributors. Instead, reduced actin cytoskeleton anisotropy, focal adhesion density and cell stiffness were characteristics associated with efficient passage through constraints. By comparing transcriptomic profiles between the parental and selected populations, increased Ras/MAPK signalling was linked with cytoskeleton rearrangements and cell softening. MEK inhibitor treatment reversed the transcriptional, cytoskeleton, focal adhesion and elasticity changes. Conversely, expression of oncogenic KRas in parental MDA MB 231 cells, or oncogenic BRaf in parental MDA MB 435 cells, significantly reduced cell stiffness. These results reveal that MAPK signalling, in addition to tumour cell proliferation, has a significant role in regulating cell biomechanics

    Microtrack migration: insights into 3D cell motility

    No full text
    No abstract available

    Reactive oxygen species and hydrogen peroxide generation in cell migration

    Get PDF
    Directional cell migration is a complex process that requires spatially and temporally co-ordinated regulation of actin cytoskeleton dynamics. In response to external cues, signals are transduced to elicit cytoskeletal responses. It has emerged that reactive oxygen species, including hydrogen peroxide, are important second messengers in pathways that influence the actin cytoskeleton, although the identities of key proteins regulated by hydrogen peroxide are largely unknown. We recently showed that oxidation of cofilin1 is elevated in migrating cells relative to stationary cells, and that the effect of this post-translational modification is to reduce cofilin1-actin binding and to inhibit filamentous-actin severing by cofilin1. These studies revealed that cofilin1 regulation by hydrogen peroxide contributes to directional cell migration, and established a template for discovering additional proteins that are regulated in an analogous manner

    Organotypic platform for studying cancer cell metastasis

    No full text
    Metastasis is the leading cause of mortality in cancer patients. To migrate to distant sites, cancer cells would need to adapt their behaviour in response to different tissue environments. Thus, it is essential to study this process in models that can closely replicate the tumour microenvironment. Here, we evaluate the use of organotypic liver and brain slices to study cancer metastasis. Morphological and viability parameters of the slices were monitored daily over 3 days in culture to assess their stability as a realistic 3D tissue platform for in vitro metastatic assays. Using these slices, we evaluated the invasion of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and of a subpopulation that was selected for increased motility. We show that the more aggressive invasion of the selected cells likely resulted not only from their lower stiffness, but also from their lower adhesion to the surrounding tissue. Different invasion patterns in the brain and liver slices were observed for both subpopulations. Cells migrated faster in the brain slices (with an amoeboid-like mode) compared to in the liver slices (where they migrated with mesenchymal or collective migration-like modes). Inhibition of the Ras/MAPK/ERK pathway increased cell stiffness and adhesion forces, which resulted in reduced invasiveness. These results illustrate the potential for organotypic tissue slices to more closely mimic in vivo conditions during cancer cell metastasis than most in vitro models

    Migration through physical constraints is enabled by MAPK-induced cell softening via actin cytoskeleton re-organization

    No full text
    Cancer cells are softer than the normal cells, and metastatic cells are even softer. These changes in biomechanical properties contribute to cancer progression by facilitating cell movement through physically constraining environments. To identify properties that enabled passage through physical constraints, cells that were more efficient at moving through narrow membrane micropores were selected from established cell lines. By examining micropore-selected human MDA MB 231 breast cancer and MDA MB 435 melanoma cancer cells, membrane fluidity and nuclear elasticity were excluded as primary contributors. Instead, reduced actin cytoskeleton anisotropy, focal adhesion density and cell stiffness were characteristics associated with efficient passage through constraints. By comparing transcriptomic profiles between the parental and selected populations, increased Ras/MAPK signalling was linked with cytoskeleton rearrangements and cell softening. MEK inhibitor treatment reversed the transcriptional, cytoskeleton, focal adhesion and elasticity changes. Conversely, expression of oncogenic KRas in parental MDA MB 231 cells, or oncogenic BRaf in parental MDA MB 435 cells, significantly reduced cell stiffness. These results reveal that MAPK signalling, in addition to tumour cell proliferation, has a significant role in regulating cell biomechanics.This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.</p
    corecore