30 research outputs found

    Circumventing Authority: Loopholes in the DMCA’s Access Controls

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    In a world where digital pirates freely roam the internet, seemingly plundering at will, the providers of digital content must find a way to protect their valuable assets. Digital fences afford that protection--but not very well. Fortunately (for content owners), 17 U.S.C. §1201, passed as part of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998, was designed to fill the numerous gaps in those fences by forbidding activities designed to circumvent them. In its present state, however, §1201 does not adequately serve that purpose. Substantial flaws in the language of the statute render it virtually powerless to thwart piracy. If §1201 is to fulfill its intended role (without the need for creative judicial interpretation), it must be amended to rectify the discrepancies between Congress’ supposed intent and the language it chose

    Precision measurement of the neutrino velocity with the ICARUS detector in the CNGS beam

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    During May 2012, the CERN-CNGS neutrino beam has been operated for two weeks for a total of 1.8 10^17 pot in bunched mode, with a 3 ns narrow width proton beam bunches, separated by 100 ns. This tightly bunched beam structure allows a very accurate time of flight measurement of neutrinos from CERN to LNGS on an event-by-event basis. Both the ICARUS-T600 PMT-DAQ and the CERN-LNGS timing synchronization have been substantially improved for this campaign, taking ad-vantage of additional independent GPS receivers, both at CERN and LNGS as well as of the deployment of the "White Rabbit" protocol both at CERN and LNGS. The ICARUS-T600 detector has collected 25 beam-associated events; the corresponding time of flight has been accurately evaluated, using all different time synchronization paths. The measured neutrino time of flight is compatible with the arrival of all events with speed equivalent to the one of light: the difference between the expected value based on the speed of light and the measured value is tof_c - tof_nu = (0.10 \pm 0.67stat. \pm 2.39syst.) ns. This result is in agreement with the value previously reported by the ICARUS collaboration, tof_c - tof_nu = (0.3 \pm 4.9stat. \pm 9.0syst.) ns, but with improved statistical and systematic errors.Comment: 21 pages, 13 figures, 1 tabl

    Canagliflozin and renal outcomes in type 2 diabetes and nephropathy

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    BACKGROUND Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the leading cause of kidney failure worldwide, but few effective long-term treatments are available. In cardiovascular trials of inhibitors of sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2), exploratory results have suggested that such drugs may improve renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS In this double-blind, randomized trial, we assigned patients with type 2 diabetes and albuminuric chronic kidney disease to receive canagliflozin, an oral SGLT2 inhibitor, at a dose of 100 mg daily or placebo. All the patients had an estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 30 to <90 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area and albuminuria (ratio of albumin [mg] to creatinine [g], >300 to 5000) and were treated with renin–angiotensin system blockade. The primary outcome was a composite of end-stage kidney disease (dialysis, transplantation, or a sustained estimated GFR of <15 ml per minute per 1.73 m2), a doubling of the serum creatinine level, or death from renal or cardiovascular causes. Prespecified secondary outcomes were tested hierarchically. RESULTS The trial was stopped early after a planned interim analysis on the recommendation of the data and safety monitoring committee. At that time, 4401 patients had undergone randomization, with a median follow-up of 2.62 years. The relative risk of the primary outcome was 30% lower in the canagliflozin group than in the placebo group, with event rates of 43.2 and 61.2 per 1000 patient-years, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59 to 0.82; P=0.00001). The relative risk of the renal-specific composite of end-stage kidney disease, a doubling of the creatinine level, or death from renal causes was lower by 34% (hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.81; P<0.001), and the relative risk of end-stage kidney disease was lower by 32% (hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.86; P=0.002). The canagliflozin group also had a lower risk of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke (hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.95; P=0.01) and hospitalization for heart failure (hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.80; P<0.001). There were no significant differences in rates of amputation or fracture. CONCLUSIONS In patients with type 2 diabetes and kidney disease, the risk of kidney failure and cardiovascular events was lower in the canagliflozin group than in the placebo group at a median follow-up of 2.62 years

    Polyproline II helical structure in protein unfolded states: Lysine peptides revisited

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    The left-handed polyproline II (PPII) helix gives rise to a circular dichroism spectrum that is remarkably similar to that of unfolded proteins. This similarity has been used as the basis for the hypothesis that unfolded proteins possess considerable PPII helical content. It has long been known that homopolymers of lysine adopt the PPII helical conformation at neutral pH, presumably a result of electrostatic repulsion between side chains. It is shown here that a seven-residue lysine peptide also adopts the PPII conformation. In contrast with homopolymers of lysine, this short peptide is shown to retain PPII helical character under conditions in which side-chain charges are heavily screened or even neutralized. The most plausible explanation for these observations is that the peptide backbone favors the PPII conformation to maximize favorable interactions with solvent. These data are evidence that unfolded proteins do indeed possess PPII content, indicating that the ensemble of unfolded states is significantly smaller than is commonly assumed

    Host-Guest Scale of Left-Handed Polyproline II Helix Formation

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    Despite the clear importance of the left-handed polyproline II (PPII) helical conformation in many physiologically important processes as well as its potential significance in protein unfolded states, little is known about the physical determinants of this conformation. We present here a scale of relative PPII helix-forming propensities measured for all residues, except tyrosine and tryptophan, in a proline-based host peptide system. Proline has the highest measured propensity in this system, a result of strong steric interactions that occur between adjacent prolyl rings. The other measured propensities are consistent with backbone solvation being an important component in PPII helix formation. Side chain to backbone hydrogen bonding may also play a role in stabilizing this conformation. The PPII helix-forming propensity scale will prove useful in future studies of the conformational properties of proline-rich sequences as well as provide insights into the prevalence of PPII helices in protein unfolded states
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