50 research outputs found

    Mild and moderate pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease is associated with increased coronary artery calcium.

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    BackgroundIt is increasingly evident that patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are more likely to die from heart disease than kidney failure. This study evaluated whether pre- dialysis CKD is an independent risk factor for coronary artery calcium (CAC).MethodsA total of 544 consecutive patients who underwent CAC scoring were analyzed. Eleven patients requiring hemodialysis were excluded. Patients were divided into three groups: normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (GFR > 90 mL/min/1.73 m²), mild CKD (90 ≥ GFR > 60 mL/min/1.73 m²), and moderate CKD (60 ≥ GFR > 30 mL/min/1.73 m²). Continuous and categorical variables were compared using analysis of variance and the χ² statistic. A multiple logistic regression model was used for detecting the association between total CAC score and GFR. An unadjusted model was used, followed by a second model adjusted for covariates known to be related to CAC. Another multivariable binary logistic model predicting the presence of CAC (>10) was performed and odds of incidence of CAC (>10) were calculated among the three GFR subgroups.ResultsAfter adjustment for covariates, patients with mild CKD had mean CAC scores 175 points higher than those with the referent normal GFR (P = 0.048), while those with moderate CKD had mean CAC scores 693 points higher than the referent (P < 0.001). After adjustment for covariates, patients with mild CKD were found to be 2.2 times more likely (95% confidence interval 1.3-3.7, P = 0.004) and patients with moderate CKD were 6.4 times more likely (95% confidence interval 2.9-14.3, P < 0.001) to have incident CAC compared with the group with normal GFR.ConclusionMild and moderate pre-dialysis CKD are independent risk factors for increased mean and incident CAC

    Cell-surface signatures of immune dysfunction risk-stratify critically ill patients: INFECT study.

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    PURPOSE: Cellular immune dysfunctions, which are common in intensive care patients, predict a number of significant complications. In order to effectively target treatments, clinically applicable measures need to be developed to detect dysfunction. The objective was to confirm the ability of cellular markers associated with immune dysfunction to stratify risk of secondary infection in critically ill patients. METHODS: Multi-centre, prospective observational cohort study of critically ill patients in four UK intensive care units. Serial blood samples were taken, and three cell surface markers associated with immune cell dysfunction [neutrophil CD88, monocyte human leucocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) and percentage of regulatory T cells (Tregs)] were assayed on-site using standardized flow cytometric measures. Patients were followed up for the development of secondary infections. RESULTS: A total of 148 patients were recruited, with data available from 138. Reduced neutrophil CD88, reduced monocyte HLA-DR and elevated proportions of Tregs were all associated with subsequent development of infection with odds ratios (95% CI) of 2.18 (1.00-4.74), 3.44 (1.58-7.47) and 2.41 (1.14-5.11), respectively. Burden of immune dysfunction predicted a progressive increase in risk of infection, from 14% for patients with no dysfunction to 59% for patients with dysfunction of all three markers. The tests failed to risk stratify patients shortly after ICU admission but were effective between days 3 and 9. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms our previous findings that three cell surface markers can predict risk of subsequent secondary infection, demonstrates the feasibility of standardized multisite flow cytometry and presents a tool which can be used to target future immunomodulatory therapies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02186522).The study was funded by Innovate UK (Sepsis 2: 101193), BD Biosciences and the National Institute for Academic Anaesthesia. Dr Conway Morris is supported by a Clinical Research Career Development Fellowship from the Wellcome Trust (WT 2055214/Z/16/Z). Dr Shankar-Hari is supported by the National Institute for Health Research Clinician Scientist Award (CS-2016-16- 011)

    Early PREdiction of sepsis using leukocyte surface biomarkers: the ExPRES-sepsis cohort study.

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    PURPOSE: Reliable biomarkers for predicting subsequent sepsis among patients with suspected acute infection are lacking. In patients presenting to emergency departments (EDs) with suspected acute infection, we aimed to evaluate the reliability and discriminant ability of 47 leukocyte biomarkers as predictors of sepsis (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score ≥ 2 at 24 h and/or 72 h following ED presentation). METHODS: In a multi-centre cohort study in four EDs and intensive care units (ICUs), we standardised flow-cytometric leukocyte biomarker measurement and compared patients with suspected acute infection (cohort-1) with two comparator cohorts: ICU patients with established sepsis (cohort-2), and ED patients without infection or systemic inflammation but requiring hospitalization (cohort-3). RESULTS: Between January 2014 and February 2016, we recruited 272, 59 and 75 patients to cohorts 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Of 47 leukocyte biomarkers, 14 were non-reliable, and 17 did not discriminate between the three cohorts. Discriminant analyses for predicting sepsis within cohort-1 were undertaken for eight neutrophil (cluster of differentiation antigens (CD) CD15; CD24; CD35; CD64; CD312; CD11b; CD274; CD279), seven monocyte (CD35; CD64; CD312; CD11b; HLA-DR; CD274; CD279) and a CD8 T-lymphocyte biomarker (CD279). Individually, only higher neutrophil CD279 [OR 1.78 (95% CI 1.23-2.57); P = 0.002], higher monocyte CD279 [1.32 (1.03-1.70); P = 0.03], and lower monocyte HLA-DR [0.73 (0.55-0.97); P = 0.03] expression were associated with subsequent sepsis. With logistic regression the optimum biomarker combination was increased neutrophil CD24 and neutrophil CD279, and reduced monocyte HLA-DR expression, but no combination had clinically relevant predictive validity. CONCLUSIONS: From a large panel of leukocyte biomarkers, immunosuppression biomarkers were associated with subsequent sepsis in ED patients with suspected acute infection. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02188992.The study was funded by Innovate UK (Sepsis 2: 101193). Dr Shankar-Hari is supported by the National Institute for Health Research Clinician Scientist Award (CS-2016-16-011). Dr Conway Morris is supported by a Clinical Research Career Development Fellowship from the Wellcome Trust (WT 2055214/Z/16/Z)

    Quantitative imaging biomarkers of coronary plaque morphology: insights from EVAPORATE

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    AimsResidual cardiovascular risk persists despite statin therapy. In REDUCE-IT, icosapent ethyl (IPE) reduced total events, but the mechanisms of benefit are not fully understood. EVAPORATE evaluated the effects of IPE on plaque characteristics by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). Given the conclusion that the IPE-treated patients demonstrate that plaque burden decreases has already been published in the primary study analysis, we aimed to demonstrate whether the use of an analytic technique defined and validated in histological terms could extend the primary study in terms of whether such changes could be reliably seen in less time on drug, at the individual (rather than only at the cohort) level, or both, as neither of these were established by the primary study result.Methods and ResultsEVAPORATE randomized the patients to IPE 4 g/day or placebo. Plaque morphology, including lipid-rich necrotic core (LRNC), fibrous cap thickness, and intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH), was assessed using the ElucidVivo® (Elucid Bioimaging Inc.) on CCTA. The changes in plaque morphology between the treatment groups were analyzed. A neural network to predict treatment assignment was used to infer patient representation that encodes significant morphological changes. Fifty-five patients completed the 18-month visit in EVAPORATE with interpretable images at each of the three time points. The decrease of LRNC between the patients on IPE vs. placebo at 9 months (reduction of 2 mm3 vs. an increase of 41 mm3, p = 0.008), widening at 18 months (6 mm3 vs. 58 mm3 increase, p = 0.015) were observed. While not statistically significant on a univariable basis, reductions in wall thickness and increases in cap thickness motivated multivariable modeling on an individual patient basis. The per-patient response assessment was possible using a multivariable model of lipid-rich phenotype at the 9-month follow-up, p < 0.01 (sustained at 18 months), generalizing well to a validation cohort.ConclusionPlaques in the IPE-treated patients acquired more characteristics of stability. Reliable assessment using histologically validated analysis of individual response is possible at 9 months, with sustained stabilization at 18 months, providing a quantitative basis to elucidate drug mechanism and assess individual patient response

    Laparoscopy in management of appendicitis in high-, middle-, and low-income countries: a multicenter, prospective, cohort study.

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    BACKGROUND: Appendicitis is the most common abdominal surgical emergency worldwide. Differences between high- and low-income settings in the availability of laparoscopic appendectomy, alternative management choices, and outcomes are poorly described. The aim was to identify variation in surgical management and outcomes of appendicitis within low-, middle-, and high-Human Development Index (HDI) countries worldwide. METHODS: This is a multicenter, international prospective cohort study. Consecutive sampling of patients undergoing emergency appendectomy over 6 months was conducted. Follow-up lasted 30 days. RESULTS: 4546 patients from 52 countries underwent appendectomy (2499 high-, 1540 middle-, and 507 low-HDI groups). Surgical site infection (SSI) rates were higher in low-HDI (OR 2.57, 95% CI 1.33-4.99, p = 0.005) but not middle-HDI countries (OR 1.38, 95% CI 0.76-2.52, p = 0.291), compared with high-HDI countries after adjustment. A laparoscopic approach was common in high-HDI countries (1693/2499, 67.7%), but infrequent in low-HDI (41/507, 8.1%) and middle-HDI (132/1540, 8.6%) groups. After accounting for case-mix, laparoscopy was still associated with fewer overall complications (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.42-0.71, p < 0.001) and SSIs (OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.14-0.33, p < 0.001). In propensity-score matched groups within low-/middle-HDI countries, laparoscopy was still associated with fewer overall complications (OR 0.23 95% CI 0.11-0.44) and SSI (OR 0.21 95% CI 0.09-0.45). CONCLUSION: A laparoscopic approach is associated with better outcomes and availability appears to differ by country HDI. Despite the profound clinical, operational, and financial barriers to its widespread introduction, laparoscopy could significantly improve outcomes for patients in low-resource environments. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02179112

    Pooled analysis of WHO Surgical Safety Checklist use and mortality after emergency laparotomy