1,185 research outputs found

    Entrepreneurship, Economic Growth and Policy in Emerging Economies

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    Entrepreneurship has emerged as an important element in the organization of economies. This emergence did not occur simultaneously in all developed countries. Differences in growth rates are often attributed to differences in the speed with which countries embrace entrepreneurial energy. This led to the political mandate to promote entrepreneurship. Hence, a clear and organized view is needed of what the determinants and consequences of entrepreneurship are. The present contribution tries to provide this view with a particular view on emerging economies. Entrepreneurship, its drivers and its consequences can be best understood using the model of the entrepreneurial economy which explains the functioning of the modern economy. This model differs from that of the earlier managed economy. Policies in emerging economies should aim at combining the two models.entrepreneurship, small firms, economic growth, economic development, policy

    Latent and actual entrepreneurship in Europe and the US: some recent developments

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    This paper uses 2004 survey data from the 15 old EU member states and the US to explain country differences in latent and actual entrepreneurship. Other than demographic variables such as gender, age and education, the set of covariates includes the perception by respondents of administrative complexities, of availability of financial support and of risk tolerance as well as country-specific effects. A comparison is made with results using a similar survey in 2000. While a majority of the surveyed population identifies lack of financial support as an obstacle to starting a new business, the role of this variable in both latent and actual entrepreneurship appears to be even more counterintuitive in 2004 than in 2000.

    Explaining the entrepreneurial activity rate of women: A macro-level perspective

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    This study explains female entrepreneurship from a country perspective. Explanatory variables are derived from three streams of literature, including that on the determinants of entrepreneurship, female labour-force participation, and female entrepreneurship. To test the theoretical relationships, Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data have been used, including total entrepreneurial activity rates for women and men for 2002, as well as a range of economic and institutional variables from standardised national statistics for 37 countries. We found that the factors determining female and male entrepreneurship at the macro-level are fairly similar. An updated version of this ScalesPaper can be found under number N200510.

    Entrepreneurship and its determinants in a cross-country setting

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    The relative stability of differences in entrepreneurial activity across countries suggests that other than economic factors are at play. The present paper offers some new thoughts about the determinants of entrepreneurial attitudes and activities by testing the relationship between institutional variables and cross-country differences in the preferences for self-employment as well as in actual selfemployment. Data of the 25 member states of the European Union as well as the US are used. The results show that country specific (cultural) variables seem to explain the preference for entrepreneurship but not the actual entrepreneurship. The present paper also introduces the remaining four papers of the special issue of the Journal of Evolutionary Economics around the theme Entrepreneurship and Culture.

    Entrepreneurship in the old en new Europe

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    Developing a dynamic SME sector is essential for countries transforming their centrally planned economy into a market oriented one. New firm formation is the major driver of this transition. Obviously, entrepreneurial energy is a necessary condition for new firm formation. This paper uses 2004 survey data from the 25 EU member states and the US to explain country differences in entrepreneurial energy. This energy is captured as latent and actual entrepreneurship.

    Start-up capital: Differences between male and female entrepreneurs

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    Engelstalige uitgave van ‘Financiering van startende vrouwelijke ondernemers’ (bestelnummer A9916). Vrouwelijke en mannelijke ondernemers verschillen in de manier van financiering van hun bedrijf. Dit betekent dat het geslacht van de ondernemer van invloed is op de hoogte van het startkapitaal en op de aard van de financiering. Als de ondernemer een vrouw is, heeft dit positieve invloed op het aandeel bankkrediet in het startkapitaal. Ingegaan wordt onder meer op verschillen tussen mannelijke en vrouwelijke ondernemers, ervaring, onderwijs, parttime ondernemerschap en netwerken.

    Post-Materialism: A Cultural Factor influencing Total Entrepreneurial Activity across Nations

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    The study of predictors of entrepreneurial activity at the country level has been dominated by economic influences. However, the relative stability of differences in entrepreneurial activity across countries suggests that other forces such as institutional and/or cultural factors are at play. The objective of this paper is to explore more specifically how post-materialism may help to explain differences in total entrepreneurial activity across countries.ïżœData from 28 countries, world-wide, are used to test the hypotheses, based on intersecting data available from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, World Values Survey and other published sources. Findings confirm the significance of post-materialism in predicting total entrepreneurial activity even when controlling for these other factors.

    Entrepreneurial engagement levels in the European Union

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    A multinomial logit model and survey data from the 25 EU member states and the US are used to establish the effect of demographic and other variables on various entrepreneurial engagement levels. These engagement levels range from 'never thought about starting a business' to 'thinking about it', 'taking steps for starting up', 'having a young business', 'having an older business' and 'no longer being an entrepreneur'. Data of the 2004 Entrepreneurship Flash Eurobarometer survey containing over 13,500 observations is used. Other than demographic variables such as gender, age, education level and whether parents are self-employed, the set of explanatory variables used includes country specific effects, measures of risk tolerance, internal and external locus of control and four perceptions of 'obstacles'.

    Setting up a business in the Netherlands

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    Onderzoekt de kenmerken van mensen die de plannen voor het starten van een onderneming realiseren, vergeleken met de mensen die opgeven of bezig blijven met het opzetten van de onderneming.

    Controlling service work: An ambiguous accomplishment between employees, management and customers

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    In order to understand the control of service work, most service literature has focused on its production while treating the customer as secondary. The consumption literature emphasizes the customer’s role but lacks empirical evidence for its claims. Using an ethnographic study of an ‘exclusive’ department store, this article aims to reduce the gap between these two bodies of literature by investigating how employees, management and customers control service work. The findings suggest that the maintenance of class difference combined with competing expectations of managers, employees and customers makes the management of service work highly ambiguous and reveals a continuing instability between managerial practices of control and consumer culture
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