208 research outputs found

    Cleaning up Maryland: Utilizing Citizen Suits to Remedy Environmental Injustice and Attain Cleaner Water

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    Recent Developments: Travelocity.com LP v. Comptroller

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    It takes a community: an archaeological investigation of the 1897-1907 Equality Colony, Skagit County, Washington

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    Community plays a critical role in human life and this project explores community on multiple levels, both through exploration of a historic socialist community, the Equality Colony, and through its use of the community archaeology method. In 1897 the Brotherhood of the Cooperative Commonwealth, a Maine based socialist political group, put out a call to its membership of over 2,000 people across the nation to move to Washington State. Their long term goal was to win the heart of the state for American socialism. The short term goal was to establish a colony to demonstrate the utility of socialist living to the country. The long term goal was never realized; the short term goal resulted in the formation of the Equality Colony, which existed in Skagit County, Washington from 1897 to 1907. The Equality Colony has received some attention from historians but this is the first archaeological investigation. In fact, there has been little archaeological research of utopian communities in the Northwest region at all. By apply a strong anthropological theoretical framework; this project brings a new perspective and new insight to this fascinating piece of history and lays groundwork for archaeological survey on the former Equality Colony land. Historical research, including analysis of recorded interviews with former Equality Colony members and descendents, as well as historic photographs, maps, and documents, was utilized to both gain new insight into the Equality Colony history and to generate archaeological research questions. In the course of this project a wealth of information pertinent to the creation of an archaeological research design was compiled and explored. Work with a variety of maps and aerial photographs succeeded in locating the former Equality Colony infrastructure on the modern landscape. The Equality Colony land is privately owned today and archaeological survey(s) of this land cannot be carried out without landowner cooperation. This thesis project utilized the community archaeology method to lay the groundwork for archaeological survey. Community archaeology is the purposeful engagement of a community, most often the local and/or descendant community, in an archaeological project. Community engagement activities for this project included mail correspondence with the landowners, public talks, a landowner meeting, and various other community interactions. Through landowner engagement I was able to do the first ever archaeological survey on a portion of the historic Equality Colony site. The community archaeological method is being increasingly utilized but best practice guidelines have yet to be established. By documenting my own community archaeology process I hope to contribute to the growing body of work from which guidelines may be created

    Summary of current knowledge of the size and spatial distribution of the horse population within Great Britain

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    <b>Background</b> Robust demographic information is important to understanding the risk of introduction and spread of exotic diseases as well as the development of effective disease control strategies, but is often based on datasets collected for other purposes. Thus, it is important to validate, or at least cross-reference these datasets to other sources to assess whether they are being used appropriately. The aim of this study was to use horse location data collected from different contributing industry sectors ("Stakeholder horse data") to calibrate the spatial distribution of horses as indicated by owner locations registered in the National Equine Database (the NED).<p></p> <b>Results</b> A conservative estimate for the accurately geo-located NED horse population within GB is approximately 840,000 horses. This is likely to be an underestimate because of the exclusion of horses due to age or location criteria. In both datasets, horse density was higher in England and Wales than in Scotland. The high density of horses located in urban areas as indicated in the NED is consistent with previous reports indicating that owner location cannot always be viewed as a direct substitute for horse location. Otherwise, at a regional resolution, there are few differences between the datasets. There are inevitable biases in the stakeholder data, and leisure horses that are unaffiliated to major stakeholders are not included in these data. Despite this, the similarity in distributions of these datasets is re-assuring, suggesting that there are few regional biases in the NED.<p></p> <b>Conclusions</b> Our analyses suggest that stakeholder data could be used to monitor possible changes in horse demographics. Given such changes in horse demographics and the advantages of stakeholder data (which include annual updates and accurate horse location), it may be appropriate to use these data for future disease modelling in conjunction with, if not in place of the NED

    Accumulation and toxicity of monoaromatic petroleum hydrocarbons in early life stages of cod and haddock

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    A multitude of recent studies have documented the detrimental effects of crude oil exposure on early life stages of fish, including larvae and embryos. While polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), particularly alkyl PAHs, are often considered the main cause of observed toxic effects, other crude oil derived organic compounds are usually overlooked. In the current study, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was applied to investigate the body burden of a wide range of petrogenic compounds in Atlantic haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) and cod (Gadus morhua) embryos that had been exposed to sublethal doses of dispersed crude oil. Several groups of alkylated monoaromatic compounds (e.g. alkyl tetralins, indanes and alkyl benzenes), as well as highly alkylated PAHs, were found to accumulate in the fish embryos upon crude oil exposure. To investigate the toxicity of the monoaromatic compounds, two models (1-isopropyl-4-methyltetralin and 1-isopropyl-4-methylindane) were synthesized and shown to bioaccumulate and cause delayed hatching in developing embryos. Minor developmental effects, including craniofacial and jaw deformations and pericardial edemas, were also observed at the highest studied concentrations of the alkylindane.acceptedVersio

    An online survey of horse-owners in Great Britain

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    Background: Contingency planning for potential equine infectious disease outbreaks relies on accurate information on horse location and movements to estimate the risk of dissemination of disease(s). An online questionnaire was used to obtain unique information linking owner and horse location to characteristics of horse movements within and outwith Great Britain (GB).<p></p> Results: This online survey yielded a strong response, providing more than four times the target number of respondents (1000 target respondents) living in all parts of GB. Key demographic findings of this study indicated that horses which were kept on livery yards and riding schools were likely to be found in urban environments, some distance away from the owner’s home and vaccinated against influenza and herpes virus. Survey respondents were likely to travel greater than 10 miles to attend activities such as eventing or endurance but were also likely to travel and return home within a single day (58.6%, 2063/3522). This may affect the geographical extent and speed of disease spread, if large numbers of people from disparate parts of the country are attending the same event and the disease agent is highly infectious or virulent. The greatest risk for disease introduction and spread may be represented by a small proportion of people who import or travel internationally with their horses. These respondents were likely to have foreign horse passports, which were not necessarily recorded in the National Equine Database (NED), making the location of these horses untraceable.<p></p> Conclusions: These results illustrate the difficulties which exist with national GB horse traceability despite the existence of the NED and the horse passport system. This study also demonstrates that an online approach could be adopted to obtain important demographic data on GB horse owners on a more routine and frequent basis to inform decisions or policy pertaining to equine disease control. This represents a reasonable alternative to collection of GB horse location and movement data given that the NED no longer exists and there is no immediate plan to replace it.<p></p&gt

    A tiered approach to the use of alternatives to animal testing for the safety assessment of cosmetics: Eye irritation

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    AbstractThe need for alternative approaches to replace the in vivo rabbit Draize eye test for evaluation of eye irritation of cosmetic ingredients has been recognised by the cosmetics industry for many years. Extensive research has lead to the development of several assays, some of which have undergone formal validation. Even though, to date, no single in vitro assay has been validated as a full replacement for the rabbit Draize eye test, organotypic assays are accepted for specific and limited regulatory purposes. Although not formally validated, several other in vitro models have been used for over a decade by the cosmetics industry as valuable tools in a weight of evidence approach for the safety assessment of ingredients and finished products. In light of the deadlines established in the EU Cosmetics Directive for cessation of animal testing for cosmetic ingredients, a COLIPA scientific meeting was held in Brussels on 30th January, 2008 to review the use of alternative approaches and to set up a decision-tree approach for their integration into tiered testing strategies for hazard and safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients and their use in products. Furthermore, recommendations are given on how remaining data gaps and research needs can be addressed

    Mental and Physical Health-Related Quality of Life among U.S. Cancer Survivors: Population Estimates from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey

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    Despite extensive data on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among cancer survivors, we do not yet have an estimate of the percent of survivors with poor mental and physical HRQOL compared to population norms. HRQOL population means for adult-onset cancer survivors of all ages and across the survivorship trajectory also have not been published

    Objective burden, resources, and other stressors among informal cancer caregivers: a hidden quality issue?

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    A great deal of clinical cancer care is delivered in the home by informal caregivers (e.g. family, friends), who are often untrained. Caregivers' context varies widely, with many providing care despite low levels of resources and high levels of additional demands

    How soil carbon accounting can improve to support investment- oriented actions promoting soil carbon storage

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    Key messages ◼ The financial community needs a standardized, low-cost, fit-for-purpose approach to soil organic carbon (SOC) accounting that encourages investment and adapts to the climate market. ◼ To encourage investments, an accounting system should provide “value for money,” align with global goals and support co-benefits, while safeguarding reputational risks. ◼ Building a sequenced approach to improve accounting accuracy requires planning to reduce uncertainties of the accounting systems overtime. ◼ Developing low-cost SOC accounting requires i) focusing on a few high-quality direct measurements (opposed to multiple low-quality measurements), ii) reducing the uncertainty of models, and iii) enhancing capability to easily incorporate farm-level activity data. ◼ Moving to hybrid measurement approaches (a mix of direct measurements with modeling and remote sensing) seems to be the most cost-effective pathway to achieve low-cost SOC accounting systems
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