455 research outputs found

    Distinguished figures in the development of dental care in Croatian littoral and the foundation of a Dentist Association in Rijeka

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    Until the early 19th century, dental illnesses in the Croatian Littoral were treated by barbers and quacks. Mid 19th century saw the first seasonal dentists come from Vienna, Graz, and Trieste, and the first local dentists started to work full-time in the second half of the 19th century. Dr Frano Dabrović, Dr Niko Gjivović, Dr Dezider Dalma, and Dr Edmund Krausz were the first promoters of the profession, research, and education in dental hygiene of the local population. To further improve their profession, the dentists of Rijeka established a Society of the Littoral on 16 January 1909. There were other dentists outside Rijeka, such as Dr Ljudevit Korewa who ran his office in Senj, and Dr Hans Pichler who worked in the Navy Hospital of Pula during the First World War. The first teacher of dental medicine at the Zagreb University School of Medicine was professor Eduard Radošević, and the first dean of the Zagreb University School of Dental Medicine was professor Živko Bolf, both born in Gorski kotar ( an inland region with close ties with Rijeka)

    (2+1)D surface solitons at the interface between a linear medium and a nonlocal nonlinear medium

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    We address (2+1)D surface solitons occurring at the interface between a linear medium and a nonlocal nonlinear medium whose nonlinear contribution to the refractive index has a initial value at the interface. We find that there exist stable single and dipole surface solitons which do not exhibit a power threshold. The properties of the surface solitons can be affected by the initial value and the degree of nonlocality. When a laser beam is launched away from the interface, the beam will be periodic oscillations.Comment: 16 pages, 6 figure

    Solitons in Nonlinear Media with an Infinite Range of Nonlocality: First Observation of Coherent Elliptic Solitons and of Vortex-Ring Solitons

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    We present an experimental study on wave propagation in highly nonlocal optically nonlinear media, for which far-away boundary conditions significantly affect the evolution of localized beams. As an example, we set the boundary conditions to be anisotropic and demonstrate the first experimental observation of coherent elliptic solitons. Furthermore, exploiting the natural ability of such nonlinearities to eliminate azimuthal instabilities, we perform the first observation of stable vortex-ring solitons. These features of highly nonlocal nonlinearities affected by far-away boundary conditions open new directions in nonlinear science by facilitating remote control over soliton propagation

    Paradoxical DAT in a Term Newborn with Physiological Jaundice

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    The Direct Antigen Test (DAT) is used to find out if a newborn has maternally-produced antibodies against the newborn’s red blood cells. We discuss the case of a term newborn male with an O+ blood type born to a mother whose blood type is A+. As a part of routine screening, DAT of umbilical cord blood was obtained, which resulted positive. While the neonate had jaundice, the overall clinical picture pointed more toward neonatal physiological jaundice rather than a potential hemolytic anemia expected with a positive DAT. This discrepancy prompted us to review literature to explain our findings

    Entropy driven multi-photon frequency up-conversion

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    Frequency up-conversion of few low-energy photons into a single high-energy photon, greatly contributes to imaging, light sources, detection and other fields of research. However, it offers negligible efficiency when up-converting many photons. This is because coherent process are fundamentally limited due to momentum conservation requirements, while in incoherent up-conversion the finite intermediate states lifetime requires huge intensities. Thermodynamically, conventional incoherent up-conversion is driven by the internal energy of the incoming photons. However, a system can also drive work through change in its collective properties such as entropy. Here we experimentally demonstrate entropy driven ten-fold up-conversion from 10.6{\mu} to 1{\mu}m at internal efficiency above 27% and total efficiency above 10%. In addition, the emitted radiance at 1{\mu}m exceeds the maximal possible Black-Body radiance of our device, indicating emitter's effective-temperature that is considerably above the bulk-temperature. This work opens the way for up-conversion of thermal-radiation, and high-temperature chemistry done at room-temperature.Comment: 14 page

    Two-dimensional multi-pole solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media

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    We present the experimental observation of scalar multi-pole solitons in highly nonlocal nonlinear media, including dipole-, tri-pole, quadru-pole, and necklace-type solitons, organized as arrays of out-of-phase bright spots. These complex solitons are meta-stable, but with a large parameters range where the instability is weak, enabling their experimental observation.Comment: 12 pages, 2 figure

    The boundary force exerted on spatial solitons in cylindrical strongly nonlocal media

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    We investigate the propagation of the spatial soliton in cylindrical strongly nonlocal media by a novel method of image beam of light. The effect of the boundary on the soliton acting as the dynamic force for the soliton steering is equivalent to the force between the soliton beam and the image beam. The trajectory of the soliton is analytically studied which is in good agreement with the experimental results.Comment: 3 Pages, 3 figure
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