108 research outputs found

    Separation and Renaming in Nominal Sets

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    Nominal sets provide a foundation for reasoning about names. They are used primarily in syntax with binders, but also, e.g., to model automata over infinite alphabets. In this paper, nominal sets are related to nominal renaming sets, which involve arbitrary substitutions rather than permutations, through a categorical adjunction. In particular, the left adjoint relates the separated product of nominal sets to the Cartesian product of nominal renaming sets. Based on these results, we define the new notion of separated nominal automata. We show that these automata can be exponentially smaller than classical nominal automata, if the semantics is closed under substitutions

    Expressive Logics for Coinductive Predicates

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    The classical Hennessy-Milner theorem says that two states of an image-finite transition system are bisimilar if and only if they satisfy the same formulas in a certain modal logic. In this paper we study this type of result in a general context, moving from transition systems to coalgebras and from bisimilarity to coinductive predicates. We formulate when a logic fully characterises a coinductive predicate on coalgebras, by providing suitable notions of adequacy and expressivity, and give sufficient conditions on the semantics. The approach is illustrated with logics characterising similarity, divergence and a behavioural metric on automata

    Bisimilar States in Uncertain Structures

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    We provide a categorical notion called uncertain bisimilarity, which allows to reason about bisimilarity in combination with a lack of knowledge about the involved systems. Such uncertainty arises naturally in automata learning algorithms, where one investigates whether two observed behaviours come from the same internal state of a black-box system that can not be transparently inspected. We model this uncertainty as a set functor equipped with a partial order which describes possible future developments of the learning game. On such a functor, we provide a lifting-based definition of uncertain bisimilarity and verify basic properties. Beside its applications to Mealy machines, a natural model for automata learning, our framework also instantiates to an existing compatibility relation on suspension automata, which are used in model-based testing. We show that uncertain bisimilarity is a necessary but not sufficient condition for two states being implementable by the same state in the black-box system. We remedy the lack of sufficiency by a characterization of uncertain bisimilarity in terms of coalgebraic simulations

    Coalgebra Learning via Duality

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    Automata learning is a popular technique for inferring minimal automata through membership and equivalence queries. In this paper, we generalise learning to the theory of coalgebras. The approach relies on the use of logical formulas as tests, based on a dual adjunction between states and logical theories. This allows us to learn, e.g., labelled transition systems, using Hennessy-Milner logic. Our main contribution is an abstract learning algorithm, together with a proof of correctness and termination

    Bisimilar States in Uncertain Structures

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    We provide a categorical notion called uncertain bisimilarity, which allows to reason about bisimilarity in combination with a lack of knowledge about the involved systems. Such uncertainty arises naturally in automata learning algorithms, where one investigates whether two observed behaviours come from the same internal state of a black-box system that can not be transparently inspected. We model this uncertainty as a set functor equipped with a partial order which describes possible future developments of the learning game. On such a functor, we provide a lifting-based definition of uncertain bisimilarity and verify basic properties. Beside its applications to Mealy machines, a natural model for automata learning, our framework also instantiates to an existing compatibility relation on suspension automata, which are used in model-based testing. We show that uncertain bisimilarity is a necessary but not sufficient condition for two states being implementable by the same state in the black-box system. To remedy the failure of the one direction, we characterize uncertain bisimilarity in terms of coalgebraic simulations

    Presenting Distributive Laws

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    Distributive laws of a monad T over a functor F are categorical tools for specifying algebra-coalgebra interaction. They proved to be important for solving systems of corecursive equations, for the specification of well-behaved structural operational semantics and, more recently, also for enhancements of the bisimulation proof method. If T is a free monad, then such distributive laws correspond to simple natural transformations. However, when T is not free it can be rather difficult to prove the defining axioms of a distributive law. In this paper we describe how to obtain a distributive law for a monad with an equational presentation from a distributive law for the underlying free monad. We apply this result to show the equivalence between two different representations of context-free languages

    Bisimilarity of Open Terms in Stream GSOS

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    Stream GSOS is a specification format for operations and calculi on infinite sequences. The notion of bisimilarity provides a canonical proof technique for equivalence of closed terms in such specifications. In this paper, we focus on open terms, which may contain variables, and which are equivalent whenever they denote the same stream for every possible instantiation of the variables. Our main contribution is to capture equivalence of open terms as bisimilarity on certain Mealy machines, providing a concrete proof technique. Moreover, we introduce an enhancement of this technique, called bisimulation up-to substitutions, and show how to combine it with other up-to techniques to obtain a powerful method for proving equivalence of open terms

    Up-to Techniques for Branching Bisimilarity

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    Ever since the introduction of behavioral equivalences on processes one has been searching for efficient proof techniques that accompany those equivalences. Both strong bisimilarity and weak bisimilarity are accompanied by an arsenal of up-to techniques: enhancements of their proof methods. For branching bisimilarity, these results have not been established yet. We show that a powerful proof technique is sound for branching bisimilarity by combining the three techniques of up to union, up to expansion and up to context for Bloom's BB cool format. We then make an initial proposal for casting the correctness proof of the up to context technique in an abstract coalgebraic setting, covering branching but also {\eta}, delay and weak bisimilarity
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