1,250 research outputs found

    Utilizing Community-Based Social Marketing in a Recycling Intervention With Tailgaters

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    The purpose of the current study was to design and implement a pilot intervention following the community-based social marketing (CBSM) process (McKenzie-Mohr & Smith, 1999) and Darnton’s (2008) social marketing framework to change the recycling knowledge and behaviors of tailgaters during home football events for a particular institution of higher education. Researchers asked what effect does a CBSM intervention have on the recycling behavior (via self-reported opinion and actual materials recycled) as well as self-reported knowledge among tailgaters during home football events for a particular IHE. In addition, researchers asked whether the use of students and student-athletes, from the respective IHE, as recycling educators would be better received by tailgaters than some other set of individuals. Both objective and subjective evidence support a conclusion that the pilot intervention enhanced the recycling behavior and recycling knowledge of tailgaters. Subjective evidence supports a conclusion that the tailgaters were more receptive to students and student-athletes than they would have been had some other set of individuals been the recycling educators. This study contributes to the body of knowledge by demonstrating that community-based social marketing approaches to behavior change, particularly multifaceted approaches incorporating a variety of techniques, are effective in positively changing behavior in a sport tailgating setting. Furthermore, this study provides insights for managers that tailgaters, in a context rife with identifiable constraints, are receptive to educational and behavior change-based interventions and participating in a research study utilizing the methodologies outlined in the current study. The CBSM approach described herein may serve as an effective manner in which to approach these behavior-change initiatives, green or otherwise. The present study provides an example of how sport organizations, and college athletics in particular, can operate to address proenvironmental efforts specific to mitigating the burden that sport places on the physical environment

    Ternatin and improved synthetic variants kill cancer cells by targeting the elongation factor-1A ternary complex.

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    Cyclic peptide natural products have evolved to exploit diverse protein targets, many of which control essential cellular processes. Inspired by a series of cyclic peptides with partially elucidated structures, we designed synthetic variants of ternatin, a cytotoxic and anti-adipogenic natural product whose molecular mode of action was unknown. The new ternatin variants are cytotoxic toward cancer cells, with up to 500-fold greater potency than ternatin itself. Using a ternatin photo-affinity probe, we identify the translation elongation factor-1A ternary complex (eEF1A·GTP·aminoacyl-tRNA) as a specific target and demonstrate competitive binding by the unrelated natural products, didemnin and cytotrienin. Mutations in domain III of eEF1A prevent ternatin binding and confer resistance to its cytotoxic effects, implicating the adjacent hydrophobic surface as a functional hot spot for eEF1A modulation. We conclude that the eukaryotic elongation factor-1A and its ternary complex with GTP and aminoacyl-tRNA are common targets for the evolution of cytotoxic natural products

    Truthmakers and modality

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    This paper attempts to locate, within an actualist ontology, truthmakers for modal truths: truths of the form or . In section 1 I motivate the demand for substantial truthmakers for modal truths. In section 2 I criticise Armstrong’s account of truthmakers for modal truths. In section 3 I examine essentialism and defend an account of what makes essentialist attributions true, but I argue that this does not solve the problem of modal truth in general. In section 4 I discuss, and dismiss, a theistic account of the source of modal truth proposed by Alexander Pruss. In section 5 I offer a means of (dis)solving the problem

    Can Collegiate Hockey Players Accurately Predict Regional and Total Body Physiologic Changes throughout the Competitive Season?

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    A collegiate athlete’s body composition can fluctuate due to factors such as nutrition, sleep, and training load. As changes in body composition can affect an athlete’s level of performance, it may be beneficial if athlete’s can accurately predict these changes throughout a season. The purpose of this study was to determine how well a group of 23 male collegiate hockey players (age = 22.44 ± 1.16 years, height = 181.30 ± 6.99 cm, weight = 86.41 ± 8.32 kg) could predict their regional and total body lean and fat tissue mass throughout a hockey season (September to March). Total body, trunk, lower body, and upper body compositional changes were measured at the beginning and at the end of the competitive season using dual energy X-Ray absorptiometry (DXA). At the end of the season, a questionnaire was completed by each participant to explore how they perceived their body composition changes (losses or gains in lean tissue and fat mass) throughout the season. Overall, players had a difficult time identifying actual changes in lean tissue and fat mass throughout the season. Upper body fat and lean tissue changes were perceived most accurately, while perceptions of body fat were related to android adiposity but not visceral adiposity. These findings suggest that some regional areas of body composition changes may happen without being noticed. For strength and conditioning coaches, if athletes are made aware of these changes before they become exaggerated, proper dietary, and training adaptations can be made to enhance performance

    The Development of Swimming Skills for African American Youth: Parent and Caregiver Perceptions of Barriers and Motivations

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    African American urban youth participate in swimming at an alarmingly low rate with 69% self-reporting low or no swimming skill (Irwin, Irwin, Martin,&Ross, 2010). This lack of participation translates into a drowning rate three times as high as than their White/European American peers (CDC, 2009). To investigate this issue, 12 focus groups were conducted with parents and caregivers of swimming and nonswimming children at YMCAs in six American cities. Parents/caregivers who self-identified as Black or African American shared attitudes and values that impacted their child\u27s swimming participation. Some participants in the study identified structural barriers such as a lack of time, money, or facilities. Others shared attitudes of fear and discomfort in being in and around water. Parent/caregiver attitudes had a substantial impact on children\u27s opportunities to learn to swim. There was evidence that cultural expectations about swimming impacted the choices parents in this study made regarding swimming participation. Focus group participants shared strategies of effective messaging to influence caregiver attitudes to positively impact participation. © 2014 Human Kinetics, Inc

    The impact of genital warts: loss of quality of life and cost of treatment in eight sexual health clinics in the UK

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    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the loss of quality of life and cost of treatment associated with genital warts seen in sexual health clinics. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire study and case note review of individuals with genital warts, carried out in eight sexual health clinics in England and Northern Ireland. Individuals with genital warts attending the participating clinics were invited to take part in the questionnaire study. 895 participants were recruited. A separate sample of 370 participants who had attended a participating clinic with a first visit for a first or recurrent episode of genital warts between April and June 2007 was included in the case note review. Quality of life was measured using the EQ-5D questionnaire and the cost of an episode of care was derived from the case note review. RESULTS: The weighted mean EQ-5D index score was 0.87 (95% CI 0.85 to 0.89). The weighted mean disutility was 0.056 (95% CI 0.038 to 0.074). The estimated mean loss of quality-adjusted life-years associated with an episode of genital warts was 0.018 (95% CI 0.0079 to 0.031), equivalent to 6.6 days of healthy life lost per episode. The weighted mean cost per episode of care was £94 (95% CI £84 to £104), not including the cost of a sexually transmitted infection screen. CONCLUSIONS: Genital warts have a substantial impact on the health service and the individual. This information can be utilised for economic evaluation of human papillomavirus vaccination

    Electron multiplication CCD detector technology advancement for the WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph

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    The WFIRST-AFTA (Wide Field InfraRed Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Telescope Asset) is a NASA space observatory. It will host two major astronomical instruments: a wide-field imager (WFI) to search for dark energy and carry out wide field near infrared (NIR) surveys, and a coronagraph instrument (CGI) to image and spectrally characterize extrasolar planets. In this paper, we discuss the work that has been carried out at JPL in advancing Electron Multiplying CCD (EMCCD) technology to higher flight maturity, with the goal of reaching a NASA technology readiness level of 6 (TRL-6) by early-to-mid 2016. The EMCCD has been baselined for both the coronagraph's imager and integral field spectrograph (IFS) based on its sub-electron noise performance at extremely low flux levels - the regime where the AFTA CGI will operate. We present results from a study that fully characterizes the beginning of life performance of the EMCCD. We also discuss, and present initial results from, a recent radiation test campaign that was designed and carried out to mimic the conditions of the WFIRST-AFTA space environment in an L2 orbit, where we sought to assess the sensor's end of life performance, particularly degradation of its charge transfer efficiency, in addition to other parameters such as dark current, electron multiplication gain, clock induced charge and read noise
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