113 research outputs found

    Expression and Localization of aquaporin‐1 in Temporomandibular Joint Disc with Internal Derangement

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    Background: Internal derangement is the most frequent arthropathy affecting the temporomandibular joint, where its commonest form is anterior disc displacement with or without reduction. Despite the frequency of the disorder, the biochemical features of displaced discs are still unclear. Methods: We investigated the expression pattern and localization of aquaporin‐1, an important channel protein involved in plasma membrane water permeability, in patients with anterior disc displacement (both with and without reduction), with a view to assessing the characteristics of local tissue responses to the microenvironmental changes induced by abnormal mechanical loading of the displaced disc. Protein expression was studied by immunohistochemistry in different areas of discs from 18 patients with anterior disc displacement with or without reduction and in four normal controls. Results: A greater proportion of cells immunopositive for aquaporin‐1 were detected in diseased than in normal discs. Whereas protein expression was substantially similar in the different areas of normal discs, a significantly larger number of immunopositive cells were detected in the posterior band of displaced discs without reduction and in the anterior and intermediate bands of those with reduction. Conclusions: These findings suggest that aquaporin‐1 is expressed and upregulated in temporomandibular joint with anterior disc displacement (both with and without reduction)

    Lubricin in synovial fluid of mild and severe temporomandibular joint internal derangements

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    To understand the molecular basis of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pathologies, we aimed to investigate the lubricin levels in the TMJ synovial fluid (SF) of patients with mild to severe internal derangements (IDs). A total, 34 joints were the study group. Only patients, with a Wilkes stage of III, IV and V were included, in this sample. Control group consisted of SF from eight joints, from patients undergoing to orthognatic surgery. Concentrations of lubricin in the SF from both samples were measured using ELISA system. The mean lubricin concentration was 7.029 ± 0.21 ”g/mL in stage III patients; 5.64 ± 0.10 ”g/mL in stage IV patients, and 4.78 ± 0.11 ”g/mL in stage V patients. The lubricin levels from stage IV and stage V patients differed significantly (P ? 0.001) from those of control subjects. Lubricin levels were inversely correlated with age and to VAS score. The results of this cross-sectional study highlight the relationship between disease severity and the levels of lubricin in TMJ SF. Our findings suggest that novel biotherapeutic approaches, including the administration of recombinant lubricin in the joint cavity, for the treatment of TMJ diseases can be developed

    Design and Synthesis of 4-Alkylidene-b-lactams: Benzyland Phenethyl-carbamates as Key Fragments to Switch on Antibacterial Activity

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    The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacterial strains is particularly important in chronic pathologies such as cystic fibrosis (CF), in which persistent colonization and selection of resistant strains is favored by the frequent and repeated use of antibacterial agents. Staphylococcus aureus is a common pathogen in CF patients that has an associated increased multidrug resistance. In previous studies we demonstrated that the presence of a 4-alkylidene side chain directly linked to a beta-lactam appeared to strengthen the potency against S. aureus, especially against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains. In the present study, 21 new 4-alkylidene-beta-lactams were synthesized and evaluated for antibacterial activity. We designed the new compounds to have aryl, benzyl, or phenethyl-carbamate groups on the C3 hydroxyethyl side chain. We found a correlation between biological activity and the nitrogen substituent of the carbamate group, and two phenethyl-carbamate b-lactams were shown to be valuable antibacterial agents against selected linezolid-resistant strains, with a minimum inhibitory concentrations of 2–4 mgL-1

    Prevalence of anti-nuclear autoantibodies in subjects exposed to natural asbestiform fibers: a cross-sectional study.

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    Fluoro-edenite (FE) is an asbestiform mineral fiber spotted in the lava rocks excavated from a stone quarry in Biancavilla (Italy). The derived material had been employed locally for building purposes. Previous studies found evidence that exposure to asbestos may induce autoimmunity, with frequency of anti-nuclear autoantibodies (ANA). The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between FE exposure and autoimmune responses in an exposed population. For the study, 60 subjects living in the area of Biancavilla and 60 subjects as control group were randomly invited to participate. A free medical check, including spirometry and a high-resolution computer tomography chest scan, was given to all participants. ANA were determined by indirect immunofluorescence. On medical check, no subject showed any sign and/or symptoms of illness. Prevalence for samples positive to ANA were 70% (n = 42) and 25% (n = 15), respectively, for exposed and non-exposed subjects (p < 0.05). The presence of pleural plaques (PP) was found in 21 (30%) of the exposed subjects and in 2 (3%) of the non-exposed participants. PP subjects were always ANAs positive. In conclusion, as already it was observed with exposure to asbestos fibers, levels of ANA seemed to significantly increase in subjects who had been exposed to FE. Furthermore, all subjects showing PP were also ANA-positive. This first finding in subjects exposed to FE should encourage researchers to further investigate associations between autoimmune unbalance and environmental exposure to asbestiform fibers

    Essential oils: pharmaceutical applications and encapsulation strategies into lipid-based delivery systems

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    Essential oils are being studied for more than 60 years, but a growing interest has emerged in the recent decades due to a desire for a rediscovery of natural remedies. Essential oils are known for millennia and, already in prehistoric times, they were used for medicinal and ritual purposes due to their therapeutic properties. Using a variety of methods refined over the centuries, essential oils are extracted from plant raw materials: the choice of the extraction method is decisive, since it determines the type, quantity, and stereochemical structure of the essential oil molecules. To these components belong all properties that make essential oils so interesting for pharmaceutical uses; the most investigated ones are antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, wound-healing, and anxiolytic activities. However, the main limitations to their use are their hydrophobicity, instability, high volatility, and risk of toxicity. A successful strategy to overcome these limitations is the encapsulation within delivery systems, which enable the increase of essential oils bioavailability and improve their chemical stability, while reducing their volatility and toxicity. Among all the suitable platforms, our review focused on the lipid-based ones, in particular micro- and nanoemulsions, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, and nanostructured lipid carriers.This work was supported by a grant from the Italian Ministry of Research [Grant PRIN2017 #20173ZECCM Tracking biological barriers to antigen delivery by nanotechnological vaccines(NanoTechVax)] and by Research Funding for University of Catania (Piano per la Ricerca 2016–2018—Linea Di Intervento 2 “Dotazione Ordinaria” cod. 57722172106). Cinzia Cimino was supported bythe PhD program in Biotechnology, XXXVI cycle, University of Cataniainfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Identification of Novel Markers of Prostate Cancer Progression, Potentially Modulated by Vitamin D

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    Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common cancers in men. The main risk factors associated with the disease include older age, family history of the disease, smoking, alcohol and race. Vitamin D is a pleiotropic hormone whose low levels are associated with several diseases and a risk of cancer. Here, we undertook microarray analysis in order to identify the genes involved in PCa. We analyzed three PCa microarray datasets, overlapped all genes significantly up-regulated, and subsequently intersected the common genes identified with the down-regulated genes transcriptome of LNCaP cells treated with 1α,25(OH)2D3, in order to identify the common genes involved in PCa and potentially modulated by Vitamin D. The analysis yielded 43 genes potentially involved in PCa and significantly modulated by Vitamin D. Noteworthy, our analysis showed that six genes (PRSS8, SOX4, SMYD2, MCCC2, CCNG2 and CD2AP) were significantly modulated. A Pearson correlation analysis showed that five genes out of six (SOX4 was independent), were statistically correlated with the gene expression levels of KLK3, and with the tumor percentage. From the outcome of our investigation, it is possible to conclude that the genes identified by our analysis are associated with the PCa and are potentially modulated by the Vitamin D