670 research outputs found

    A slowly rotating perfect fluid body in an ambient vacuum

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    A global model of a slowly rotating perfect fluid ball in general relativity is presented. To second order in the rotation parameter, the junction surface is an ellipsoidal cylinder. The interior is given by a limiting case of the Wahlquist solution, and the vacuum region is not asymptotically flat. The impossibility of joining an asymptotically flat vacuum region has been shown in a preceding work.Comment: 7 pages, published versio

    The Wahlquist metric cannot describe an isolated rotating body

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    It is proven that the Wahlquist perfect fluid space-time cannot be smoothly joined to an exterior asymptotically flat vacuum region. The proof uses a power series expansion in the angular velocity, to a precision of the second order. In this approximation, the Wahlquist metric is a special case of the rotating Whittaker space-time. The exterior vacuum domain is treated in a like manner. We compute the conditions of matching at the possible boundary surface in both the interior and the vacuum domain. The conditions for matching the induced metrics and the extrinsic curvatures are mutually contradictory.Comment: 13 pages, 0 figure

    The open XXZ-chain: Bosonisation, Bethe ansatz and logarithmic corrections

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    We calculate the bulk and boundary parts of the free energy for an open spin-1/2 XXZ-chain in the critical regime by bosonisation. We identify the cutoff independent contributions and determine their amplitudes by comparing with Bethe ansatz calculations at zero temperature T. For the bulk part of the free energy we find agreement with Lukyanov's result [Nucl.Phys.B 522, 533 (1998)]. In the boundary part we obtain a cutoff independent term which is linear in T and determines the temperature dependence of the boundary susceptibility in the attractive regime for T≪1T\ll 1. We further show that at particular anisotropies where contributions from irrelevant operators with different scaling dimensions cross, logarithmic corrections appear. We give explicit formulas for these terms at those anisotropies where they are most important. We verify our results by comparing with extensive numerical calculations based on a numerical solution of the T=0 Bethe ansatz equations, the finite temperature Bethe ansatz equations in the quantum-transfer matrix formalism, and the density-matrix renormalisation group applied to transfer matrices.Comment: 35 pages, 8 figure

    A Natural Orbital Diagnostic for Multiconfigurational Character in Correlated Wave Functions

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    The natural orbitals and their corresponding occupation numbers are constructed for several interesting problems to demonstrate that the existence of negative natural orbital occupation numbers for single reference correlation methods provides a simple diagnostic for the need for a multiconfigurational description of the wave function

    Atomic force microscopy-based mechanobiology

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    Mechanobiology emerges at the crossroads of medicine, biology, biophysics and engineering and describes how the responses of proteins, cells, tissues and organs to mechanical cues contribute to development, differentiation, physiology and disease. The grand challenge in mechanobiology is to quantify how biological systems sense, transduce, respond and apply mechanical signals. Over the past three decades, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has emerged as a key platform enabling the simultaneous morphological and mechanical characterization of living biological systems. In this Review, we survey the basic principles, advantages and limitations of the most common AFM modalities used to map the dynamic mechanical properties of complex biological samples to their morphology. We discuss how mechanical properties can be directly linked to function, which has remained a poorly addressed issue. We outline the potential of combining AFM with complementary techniques, including optical microscopy and spectroscopy of mechanosensitive fluorescent constructs, super-resolution microscopy, the patch clamp technique and the use of microstructured and fluidic devices to characterize the 3D distribution of mechanical responses within biological systems and to track their morphology and functional state.Peer ReviewedPostprint (published version

    An Open-System Quantum Simulator with Trapped Ions

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    The control of quantum systems is of fundamental scientific interest and promises powerful applications and technologies. Impressive progress has been achieved in isolating the systems from the environment and coherently controlling their dynamics, as demonstrated by the creation and manipulation of entanglement in various physical systems. However, for open quantum systems, engineering the dynamics of many particles by a controlled coupling to an environment remains largely unexplored. Here we report the first realization of a toolbox for simulating an open quantum system with up to five qubits. Using a quantum computing architecture with trapped ions, we combine multi-qubit gates with optical pumping to implement coherent operations and dissipative processes. We illustrate this engineering by the dissipative preparation of entangled states, the simulation of coherent many-body spin interactions and the quantum non-demolition measurement of multi-qubit observables. By adding controlled dissipation to coherent operations, this work offers novel prospects for open-system quantum simulation and computation.Comment: Pre-review submission to Nature. For an updated and final version see publication. Manuscript + Supplementary Informatio

    An alu-based phylogeny of gibbons (hylobatidae)

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    Gibbons (Hylobatidae) are small, arboreal apes indigenous to Southeast Asia that diverged from other apes ∼15-18 Ma. Extant lineages radiated rapidly 6-10 Ma and are organized into four genera (Hylobates, Hoolock, Symphalangus, and Nomascus) consisting of 12-19 species. The use of short interspersed elements (SINEs) as phylogenetic markers has seen recent popularity due to several desirable characteristics: the ancestral state of a locus is known to be the absence of an element, rare potentially homoplasious events are relatively easy to resolve, and samples can be quickly and inexpensively genotyped. During radiation of primates, one particular family of SINEs, the Alu family, has proliferated in primate genomes. Nomascus leucogenys (northern white-cheeked gibbon) sequences were analyzed for repetitive content with RepeatMasker using a custom library. The sequences containing Alu elements identified as members of a gibbon-specific subfamily were then compared with orthologous positions in other primate genomes. A primate phylogenetic panel consisting of 18 primate species, including 13 gibbon species representing all four extant genera, was assayed for all loci, and a total of 125 gibbon-specific Alu insertions were identified. The resulting amplification patterns were used to generate a phylogenetic tree. We demonstrate significant support for Symphalangus as the most basal lineage within the family. Our findings also place Nomascus as a derived lineage, sister to Hoolock, with the Nomascus-Hoolock clade sister to Hylobates. Further, our analysis groups N. leucogenys and Nomascus siki as sister taxa to the exclusion of the other Nomascus species assayed. This study represents the first use of SINEs to determine the genus level phylogenetic relationships within the family Hylobatidae. These relationships have been resolved with robust support at most internal nodes, demonstrating the utility of SINE-based phylogenetic analysis. We postulate that hybridization and rapid radiation may have contributed to the complex and contradictory findings of the previous studies. Our findings will aid in the conservation of these threatened primates and inform future studies of the biogeographical history and distribution of modern gibbon species. © 2012 The Author

    Human Monocytes Undergo Excessive Apoptosis following Temozolomide Activating the ATM/ATR Pathway While Dendritic Cells and Macrophages Are Resistant

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    Immunodeficiency is a severe therapy-limiting side effect of anticancer chemotherapy resulting from sensitivity of immunocompetent cells to DNA damaging agents. A central role in the immune system is played by monocytes that differentiate into macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). In this study we compared human monocytes isolated from peripheral blood and cytokine matured macrophages and DCs derived from them and assessed the mechanism of toxicity of the DNA methylating anticancer drug temozolomide (TMZ) in these cell populations. We observed that monocytes, but not DCs and macrophages, were highly sensitive to the killing effect of TMZ. Studies on DNA damage and repair revealed that the initial DNA incision was efficient in monocytes while the re-ligation step of base excision repair (BER) can not be accomplished, resulting in an accumulation of DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs). Furthermore, monocytes accumulated DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) following TMZ treatment, while DCs and macrophages were able to repair DSBs. Monocytes lack the DNA repair proteins XRCC1, ligase IIIα and PARP-1 whose expression is restored during differentiation into macrophages and DCs following treatment with GM-CSF and GM-CSF plus IL-4, respectively. These proteins play a key role both in BER and DSB repair by B-NHEJ, which explains the accumulation of DNA breaks in monocytes following TMZ treatment. Although TMZ provoked an upregulation of XRCC1 and ligase IIIα, BER was not enhanced likely because PARP-1 was not upregulated. Accordingly, inhibition of PARP-1 did not sensitize monocytes, but monocyte-derived DCs in which strong PARP activation was observed. TMZ induced in monocytes the DNA damage response pathways ATM-Chk2 and ATR-Chk1 resulting in p53 activation. Finally, upon activation of the Fas-receptor and the mitochondrial pathway apoptosis was executed in a caspase-dependent manner. The downregulation of DNA repair in monocytes, resulting in their selective killing by TMZ, might impact on the immune response during cancer chemotherapy

    Reduced right ventricular function on cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging is associated with uteroplacental impairment in tetralogy of Fallot

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    Background: Maternal right ventricular (RV) dysfunction (measured by echocardiography) is associated with impaired uteroplacental circulation, however echocardiography has important limitations in the assessment of RV function. We therefore aimed to investigate the association of pre-pregnancy RV and left ventricular (LV) function measured by cardiovascular magnetic resonance with uteroplacental Doppler flow parameters in pregnant women with repaired Tetralogy of Fallot (ToF). Methods: Women with repaired ToF were examined, who had been enrolled in a prospective multicenter study of pregnant women with congenital heart disease. Clinical data and CMR evaluation before pregnancy were compared with uteroplacental Doppler parameters at 20 and 32 weeks gestation. In particular, pulsatility index (PI) of uterine and umbilical artery were studied. Results: We studied 31 women; mean age 30 years, operated at early age. Univariable analyses showed that reduced RV ejection fraction (RVEF; P = 0.037 and P = 0.001), higher RV end-systolic volume (P = 0.004) and higher LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volume (P = 0.001 and P = 0.003, respectively) were associated with higher uterine or umbilical artery PI. With multivariable analyses (corrected for maternal age and body mass index), reduced RVEF before pregnancy remained associated with higher umbilical artery PI at 32 weeks (P = 0.002). RVEF was lower in women with high PI compared to women with normal PI during pregnancy (44% vs. 53%, p = 0.022). LV ejection fraction was not associated with uterine or umbilical artery PI. Conclusions: Reduced RV function before pregnancy is associated with abnormal uteroplacental Doppler flow parameters. It could be postulated that reduced RV function on pre-pregnancy CMR (≤2 years) is a predisposing factor for impaired placental function in women with repaired ToF.</p

    Unravelling the immune signature of Plasmodium falciparum transmission-reducing immunity

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    Infection with Plasmodium can elicit antibodies that inhibit parasite survival in the mosquito, when they are ingested in an infectious blood meal. Here, we determine the transmission-reducing activity (TRA) of naturally acquired antibodies from 648 malaria-exposed individuals using lab-based mosquito-feeding assays. Transmission inhibition is significantly associated with antibody responses to Pfs48/45, Pfs230, and to 43 novel gametocyte proteins assessed by protein microarray. In field-based mosquito-feeding assays the likelihood and rate of mosquito infection are significantly lower for individuals reactive to Pfs48/45, Pfs230 or to combinations of the novel TRA-associated proteins. We also show that naturally acquired purified antibodies against key transmission-blocking epitopes of Pfs48/45 and Pfs230 are mechanistically involved in TRA, whereas sera depleted of these antibodies retain high-level, complement-independent TRA. Our analysis demonstrates that host antibody responses to gametocyte proteins are associated with reduced malaria transmission efficiency from humans to mosquitoes
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