4 research outputs found

    Highly Stable Graphene-Based Nanocomposite (GO–PEI–Ag) with Broad-Spectrum, Long-Term Antimicrobial Activity and Antibiofilm Effects

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    Various silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-decorated graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites (GO–Ag) have received increasing attention owing to their antimicrobial activity and biocompatibility; however, their aggregation in physiological solutions and the generally complex synthesis methods warrant improvement. This study aimed to synthesize a polyethyleneimine (PEI)-modified and AgNP-decorated GO nanocomposite (GO–PEI–Ag) through a facile approach through microwave irradiation without any extra reductants and surfactants; its antimicrobial activity was investigated on Gram-negative/-positive bacteria (including drug-resistant bacteria) and fungi. Compared with GO–Ag, GO–PEI–Ag acquired excellent stability in physiological solutions and electropositivity, showing substantially higher antimicrobial efficacy. Moreover, GO–PEI–Ag exhibited particularly excellent long-term effects, presenting no obvious decline in antimicrobial activity after 1 week storage in physiological saline and repeated use for three times and the lasting inhibition of bacterial growth in nutrient-rich culture medium. In contrast, GO–Ag exhibited a >60% decline in antimicrobial activity after storage. Importantly, GO–PEI–Ag effectively eliminated adhered bacteria, thereby preventing biofilm formation. The primary antimicrobial mechanisms of GO–PEI–Ag were evidenced as physical damage to the pathogen structure, causing cytoplasmic leakage. Hence, stable GO–PEI–Ag with robust, long-term antimicrobial activity holds promise in combating public-health threats posed by drug-resistant bacteria and biofilms

    Electrochemical DNA Biosensor Based on a Tetrahedral Nanostructure Probe for the Detection of Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus

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    A DNA tetrahedral nanostructure-based electrochemical biosensor was developed to detect avian influenza A (H7N9) virus through recognizing a fragment of the hemagglutinin gene sequence. The DNA tetrahedral probe was immobilized onto a gold electrode surface based on self-assembly between three thiolated nucleotide sequences and a longer nucleotide sequence containing complementary DNA to hybridize with the target single-stranded (ss)­DNA. The captured target sequence was hybridized with a biotinylated-ssDNA oligonucleotide as a detection probe, and then avidin-horseradish peroxidase was introduced to produce an amperometric signal through the interaction with 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine substrate. The target ssDNA was obtained by asymmetric polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the cDNA template, reversely transcribed from the viral lysate of influenza A (H7N9) virus in throat swabs. The results showed that this electrochemical biosensor could specifically recognize the target DNA fragment of influenza A (H7N9) virus from other types of influenza viruses, such as influenza A (H1N1) and (H3N2) viruses, and even from single-base mismatches of oligonucleotides. Its detection limit could reach a magnitude of 100 fM for target nucleotide sequences. Moreover, the cycle number of the asymmetric PCR could be reduced below three with the electrochemical biosensor still distinguishing the target sequence from the negative control. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the detection of target DNA from clinical samples using a tetrahedral DNA probe functionalized electrochemical biosensor. It displays that the DNA tetrahedra has a great potential application as a probe of the electrochemical biosensor to detect avian influenza A (H7N9) virus and other pathogens at the gene level, which will potentially aid the prevention and control of the disease caused by such pathogens

    Additional file 1: of Antibiotic resistance and molecular characterization of the hydrogen sulfide-negative phenotype among diverse Salmonella serovars in China

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    Table S1. Reference strains for phs operon sequence analysis. Table S2. GenBank accession numbers for phs operon sequences from 46 H2S-negative Salmonella isolates. Table S3. Mutations detected in the phsB and phsC genes of H2S-negative Salmonella isolates. (DOC 71 kb
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