103 research outputs found

    Health-related quality of life in childhood epilepsy: Moving beyond 'seizure control with minimal adverse effects'

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    Childhood epilepsy is one of the most important and prevalent neurological conditions in the developing years. Persons with childhood onset epilepsy are at a high risk for poor psychosocial outcomes, even without experiencing co-morbidities. The goal of management of children with epilepsy should be to enable the child and the family to lead a life as free as possible from the medical and psychosocial complications of epilepsy. This comprehensive care needs to go beyond simply trying to control seizures with minimal adverse drug reactions. Seizure frequency and severity is only one important outcome variable. Other factors such as social, psychological, behavioural, educational, and cultural dimensions of their lives affect children with epilepsy, their families and their close social networks. A number of epilepsy-specific health-related quality of life (HRQL) scales for children have been developed with the aim to include and measure accurately the impact and burden of epilepsy. Their target populations, details of the origin of the items, and psychometric properties vary significantly. Their strengths and weaknesses will be identified more clearly through their continued use in the clinical setting and in research studies. Only a few studies to date have utilized these or generic HRQL measures to assess the HRQL of specific populations with epilepsy. Future research needs to develop theory driven models of HRQL and identify measurable factors that have important correlations with outcomes. Since biomedical variables like seizure frequency and severity have only moderate correlations with HRQL, other independent factors including the child's resilience, co-morbid conditions, parental well-being, family factors and societal/cultural variables may play a major role. We also need to learn what encompasses comprehensive patient care, define the goals of management and evaluate the impact of different interventions. Future studies need to include the children's own perspectives of their HRQL in addition to parental reports. Finally, clinicians need to familiarize themselves with outcome measures, be able to evaluate them, and use them routinely in their day-to-day practice

    Engaging the Voices of Children: A Scoping Review of How Children and Adolescents Are Involved in the Development of Quality-of-Life–Related Measures

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    Objectives: Patient-reported outcomes are increasingly recommended to guide patient care, develop and evaluate interventions, and modify health systems. However, not enough is known about whether and how children and adolescents, as “experts” in their own health and quality of life (QoL), are being engaged in the development of instruments. Our goals in this review were (1) to identify all QoL-related instruments that have included children and/or adolescents in the development of questionnaire content, including identification of themes and items; and (2) to report how this was done; and (3) to highlight those that used qualitative methods. Methods: MEDLINE and Embase were searched for child- or adolescent-completed QoL-related instruments, supplemented by hand-searching of relevant reviews until 2020. Original development papers were identified and retrieved when possible, from which instrument characteristics and details of qualitative development methods were extracted. Results: We identified 445 instruments, of which 88 used qualitative methods for content development. Interviews and focus groups were the most common methods. A variety of play techniques were used to engage the child and adolescent participants. The specific criteria for the inclusion of children and adolescents (age, developmental stage, duration, and nonclinical location) varied considerably. Conclusions: Researchers frequently involve children and adolescents in qualitative methods when developing QoL-related measures; however, there is little information about the methods used. Better reporting of methodology, improved dissemination of methods guidelines, and research into optimal ways of including children and adolescents in the process of instrument development would be useful

    Structure and electron-transfer pathway of the human methionine sulfoxide reductase MsrB3

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    Introduction: The post-translational oxidation of methionine to methionine sulfoxide is a reversible process, enabling repair of oxidative damage to proteins and the use of sulfoxidation as a regulatory switch. Methionine sulfoxide reductases catalyze the stereospecific reduction of methionine sulfoxide. One of the mammalian methionine sulfoxide reductases, MsrB3, has a signal sequence for entry into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In the ER, MsrB3 is expected to encounter a distinct redox environment compared to its paralogs in the cytosol, nucleus, and mitochondria. Aims: We sought to determine the location and arrangement of MsrB3 redox-active cysteines, which may couple MsrB3 activity to other redox events in the ER. Results: We determined the human MsrB3 structure using X-ray crystallography. The structure revealed that a disulfide bond near the protein amino terminus is distant in space from the active site. Nevertheless, biochemical assays showed that these amino-terminal cysteines are oxidized by the MsrB3 active site after its reaction with methionine sulfoxide. Innovation: This study reveals a mechanism to shuttle oxidizing equivalents from the primary MsrB3 active site toward the enzyme surface, where they would be available for further dithiol-disulfide exchange reactions. Conclusion: Conformational changes must occur during the MsrB3 catalytic cycle to transfer oxidizing equivalents from the active site to the amino-terminal redox-active disulfide. The accessibility of this exposed disulfide may help couple MsrB3 activity to other dithiol/disulfide redox events in the secretory pathway

    Efficacy of methylsulfonylmethane supplementation on osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized controlled study

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    BACKGROUND: Patients with osteoarthritis (OA) take a variety of health supplements in an attempt to reduce pain and improve function. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) in treating patients with knee OA. METHODS: This study was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial. Forty nine men and women 45-90 (mean 68 ± SD 7.3) years of age with knee OA according to the American College of Rheumatology clinical criteria for OA of the knee and with radiographic confirmed knee OA were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned into 2 groups: One received MSM in doses of 1.125 grams 3 times daily for 12 weeks and the other received a placebo in the same dosing frequency. The primary outcomes were the WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index for pain, stiffness and physical function, the Aggregated Locomotor Function (ALF) test that evaluates each patient's physical function, the SF-36 quality of life health survey and the visual-analogue-scale (VAS) for pain. The secondary outcomes were Knee Society Clinical Rating System for Knee Score (KSKS) and Function Score (KSFS). Patients were assessed at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks. All continuous variables were tested by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for Normal distribution. Changes within the groups and differences between the groups were calculated by repeated measures of analysis (ANOVA) with one nested variable. RESULTS: There were significant differences between treatment groups over time in WOMAC physical function (14.6 mm [CI: 4.3, 25.0]; p = 0.04) and in WOMAC total score (15.0 mm [CI: 5.1, 24.9]; p = 0.03). Treatment groups did not differ significantly in WOMAC pain (12.4 mm [CI: 0.0, 24.8]); p = 0.08) or WOMAC stiffness (27.2 mm [CI: 8.2, 46.2]; p = 0.08). There was a non-significant difference in SF-36 total score between treatment groups (11.6 [CI: 1.0, 22.1]; p = 0.54). A significant difference was found between groups in VAS for pain (0.7 s [CI: -0.9, 2.4]; p = 0.05). Secondary outcomes showed non-significant differences between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with OA of the knee taking MSM for 12 weeks showed an improvement in pain and physical function. These improvements, however, are small and it is yet to be determined if they are of clinical significance. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT0118821

    Correlation between single limb support phase and self-evaluation questionnaires in knee osteoarthritis populations

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    Purpose. To investigate the correlation between single limb support (SLS) phase (% of gait cycle) and the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire and Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36 Health Survey) in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA)

    A method to sequence and quantify DNA integration for monitoring outcome in gene therapy

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    Human genetic diseases have been successfully corrected by integration of functional copies of the defective genes into human cells, but in some cases integration of therapeutic vectors has activated proto-oncogenes and contributed to leukemia. For this reason, extensive efforts have focused on analyzing integration site populations from patient samples, but the most commonly used methods for recovering newly integrated DNA suffer from severe recovery biases. Here, we show that a new method based on phage Mu transposition in vitro allows convenient and consistent recovery of integration site sequences in a form that can be analyzed directly using DNA barcoding and pyrosequencing. The method also allows simple estimation of the relative abundance of gene-modified cells from human gene therapy subjects, which has previously been lacking but is crucial for detecting expansion of cell clones that may be a prelude to adverse events

    Differences in gait patterns, pain, function and quality of life between males and females with knee osteoarthritis: a clinical trial

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the gender differences in knee osteoarthritis (OA) by evaluating the differences in gait spatio-temporal parameters and the differences in pain, quality of life and function between males and females suffering from knee OA.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>49 males and 85 females suffering from bilateral medial compartment knee OA participated in this study. Each patient underwent a computerized gait test and completed the WOMAC questionnaire and the SF-36 health survey. Independent t-tests were performed to examine the differences between males and females in age, BMI, spatio-temporal parameters, the WOMAC questionnaire and the SF-36 health survey.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Males and females had different gait patterns. Although males and females walked at the same walking speed, cadence and step length, they presented significant differences in the gait cycle phases. Males walked with a smaller stance and double limb support, and with a larger swing and single limb support compared to females. In addition, males walked with a greater toe out angle compared to females. While significant differences were not found in the WOMAC subscales, females consistently reported higher levels of pain and disability.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>The spatio-temporal differences between genders may suggest underlying differences in the gait strategies adopted by males and females in order to reduce pain and cope with the loads acting on their affected joints, two key aspects of knee OA. These gender effects should therefore be taken into consideration when evaluating patients with knee OA.</p> <p>Trial Registration</p> <p>The study is registered in the NIH clinical trial registration, protocol No. NCT00599729.</p
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