69 research outputs found

    Degradation rate of 5-fluorouracil in metastatic colorectal cancer. A new predictive outcome biomarker?

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    BACKGROUND: 5-FU based chemotherapy is the most common first line regimen used for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Identification of predictive markers of response to chemotherapy is a challenging approach for drug selection. The present study analyzes the predictive role of 5-FU degradation rate (5-FUDR) and genetic polymorphisms (MTHFR, TSER, DPYD) on survival. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genetic polymorphisms of MTHFR, TSER and DPYD, and the 5-FUDR of homogenous patients with mCRC were retrospectively studied. Genetic markers and the 5-FUDR were correlated with clinical outcome. RESULTS: 133 patients affected by mCRC, treated with fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy from 2009 to 2014, were evaluated. Patients were classified into three metabolic classes, according to normal distribution of 5-FUDR in more than 1000 patients, as previously published: poor-metabolizer (PM) with 5-FU-DR ≤ 0,85 ng/ml/106 cells/min (8 pts); normal metabolizer with 0,85 < 5-FU-DR < 2,2 ng/ml/106 cells/min (119 pts); ultra-rapid metabolizer (UM) with 5-FU-DR ≥ 2,2 ng/ml/106 cells/min (6 pts). PM and UM groups showed a longer PFS respect to normal metabolizer group (14.5 and 11 months respectively vs 8 months; p = 0.029). A higher G3-4 toxicity rate was observed in PM and UM, respect to normal metabolizer (50% in both PM and UM vs 18%; p = 0.019). No significant associations between genes polymorphisms and outcomes or toxicities were observed. CONCLUSION: 5-FUDR seems to be significantly involved in predicting survival of patients who underwent 5-FU based CHT for mCRC. Although our findings require confirmation in large prospective studies, they reinforce the concept that individual genetic variation may allow personalized selection of chemotherapy to optimize clinical outcomes

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors: correlation between symptoms at presentation, tumor location and prognostic factors in 47 consecutive patients

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, usually kit-positive, that are believed to originate from interstitial cell of Cajal, or their related stem cells. The most common clinical presentation of these tumors is gastrointestinal bleeding, otherwise they may cause intestinal obstruction, abdominal pain, a palpable mass, or can be incidentally detected during surgery or endoscopic/radiological procedures. Prognosis is related to the size of the tumor and to the mitotic rate; other prognostic factors are tumor location, tumor resection margins, tumor rupture, and c-kit mutation that may interfere with molecular target therapy efficacy.</p> <p>Aim</p> <p>Primary aim of this study was to report our experience regarding GIST patients, correlating symptoms at presentation with tumor localization and risk factors.</p> <p>Patients and methods</p> <p>47 consecutive patients undergone to surgical resection for GISTs were enrolled in a prospective study from December 1999 to March 2009. Patient's clinical and pathological features were collected and analysed.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The most common symptom was abdominal pain. Bleeding in the digestive tract and abdominal pain were more frequent in gastric GISTs (58% and 61%); acute abdominal symptoms were more frequent in jejunal and ileal GISTs (40% and 60%), p < 0.05. We reported a mild correlation between the mitotic rate index and symptoms at presentation (p 0.074): this correlation was stronger if GISTs causing "acute abdominal symptoms" were compared with GISTs causing "abdominal pain" as main symptom (p 0.039) and with "incidental" GISTs (p 0.022).</p> <p>We observed an higher prevalence of symptomatic patients in the "high risk/malignant group" of both the Fletcher's and Miettines's classification (p < 0.05).</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>According with our findings symptoms correlate to tumor location, to class risk criteria as mitotic index and risk classifications, however we cannot conclude that symptoms are <it>per se </it>predictive of survival or patient's outcome.</p

    Association between proton-pump inhibitors (PPI) and metronomic capecitabine (MCAP) as salvage treatment for patients with advanced gastro-intestinal tumoursa. A randomized phase II study

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    Background: Several researches have shown that acidification of tumor microenvironment is the basis for tumor invasiveness, ability to metastasize S382 Abstracts and cytotoxic agents resistance; therefore proton pump inhibitors (PPI) could significantly increase the chemosensitivity. In our retrospective work we have investigated the role of capecitabine (mCAP) at metronomic dosage of 1500 mg/die as salvage chemotherapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, showing a moderately activity and well tolerability. In this prospective study we evaluated safety and activity of mCAP in the advanced gastro-intestinal patients and the putative chemosensitizing activity of a specific PPI (Rabeprazole) in association to this therap

    Combination therapy of high-dose rabeprazole plus metronomic capecitabine in advanced gastrointestinal cancer: a randomized phase II trial

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    Abstract: Background: In recent years, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been investigated at high-dose tomodulate tumormicroenvironment acidification thus restoring chemotherapeutic sensitivity. This is the first trial to study activity and safety of repurposing high dose rabeprazole combined with metronomic capecitabine (mCAP). Methods: A phase II study in which patients with gastrointestinal cancer, refractory to standard treatments, who had a life expectancy &gt;3 months, were blind randomized 1:1 to mCAP, 1500 mg/daily, continuously with or without rabeprazole 1.5 mg/kg bid, three days a week. The primary endpoint was 3-months progression-free survival (PFS). The secondary endpoints were clinical benefit (CB) and overall survival (OS). Safety and plasma concentrations of capecitabine and its metabolites (50-DFUR and 5-FU) were also evaluated. Results: Sixty-seven (median age 69 years; 63% male; 84% colorectal cancer, 76% ECOG-PS 1; 84% pretreated with two or more lines of chemotherapy) out of 90 patients screened for eligibility, were randomized to receive mCAP+rabeprazole (n = 32) vs. mCAP (n = 35). All patients were evaluable for response. No significant dierence between mCAP+rabeprazole vs. mCAP, in terms of 3-months PFS rate (HR = 1.43, 95%CI 0.53–3.85; p = 0.477), median PFS (HR = 1.22, 95%CI 0.75–2.00, p = 0.420), CB (RR = 0.85, 95%CI 0.29–2.44; p = 0.786) and median OS (HR = 0.89, 95%CI 0.54–1.48; p = 0.664) was observed. However, a 3-year OS rate of 10% and 12% was reported in the mCAP-rabeprazole and mCAP groups, respectively. Overall, no grade 3 or 4 toxicity occurred but grade 1 or 2 adverse event of any type were more frequently in the mCAP+rabeprazole group than in the mCAP (OR 2.83, 95%CI 1.03–7.79; p = 0.043). Finally, there was not statistically significant dierence in the plasma concentration of capecitabine and its metabolites between the two groups. Conclusions: Although the adjunct of high dose rabeprazole to mCAP was not shown to aect mCAP activity, as PPI are being investigated worldwide as drugs to be repositioned in cancer treatment and also considering the limited sample size as well as the favorable safety profile of the combination in the present study, further clinical investigations are desirable

    A phase II trial of a biweekly combination of paclitaxel and gemcitabine in metastatic breast cancer

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    BACKGROUND: Many emerging new drugs have recently been trialled for treatment of early and advanced breast cancer. Among these new agents paclitaxel and gemcitabine play a crucial role, mostly in patients with relapsed and metastatic disease after failure of chemotherapy with antracyclines. METHODS: A phase II study was started in order to evaluate the activity and toxicity of a combination of paclitaxel and gemcitabine in a biweekly schedule on metastatic breast cancer patients previously treated with antracyclines. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients received paclitaxel (150 mg/mq) by 3-hours infusion, followed by gemcitabine (2000 mg/mq) given as a 60 min i.v. infusion (day 1–14) for a maximum of eight cycles. In all patients treatment was evaluated for toxicity and efficacy; four patients (16%) achieved a complete response, 12 (48%) a partial response giving an overall objective response rate of 64%. Stable disease was documented in 5 patients (20%) and progressive disease occurred in 4 patients (16%). CONCLUSION: The schedule of treatment was safe and tolerable from a haematological and non-haematological point of view. These data confirm that the combination of gemcitabine and paclitaxel on a biweekly basis is an effective and well-tolerated regimen in breast cancer patients with prior therapeutic exposure to antracyclines

    A machine-learning based bio-psycho-social model for the prediction of non-obstructive and obstructive coronary artery disease

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    Background: Mechanisms of myocardial ischemia in obstructive and non-obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD), and the interplay between clinical, functional, biological and psycho-social features, are still far to be fully elucidated. Objectives: To develop a machine-learning (ML) model for the supervised prediction of obstructive versus non-obstructive CAD. Methods: From the EVA study, we analysed adults hospitalized for IHD undergoing conventional coronary angiography (CCA). Non-obstructive CAD was defined by a stenosis &lt; 50% in one or more vessels. Baseline clinical and psycho-socio-cultural characteristics were used for computing a Rockwood and Mitnitski frailty index, and a gender score according to GENESIS-PRAXY methodology. Serum concentration of inflammatory cytokines was measured with a multiplex flow cytometry assay. Through an XGBoost classifier combined with an explainable artificial intelligence tool (SHAP), we identified the most influential features in discriminating obstructive versus non-obstructive CAD. Results: Among the overall EVA cohort (n = 509), 311 individuals (mean age 67 ± 11&nbsp;years, 38% females; 67% obstructive CAD) with complete data were analysed. The ML-based model (83% accuracy and 87% precision) showed that while obstructive CAD was associated with higher frailty index, older age and a cytokine signature characterized by IL-1β, IL-12p70 and IL-33, non-obstructive CAD was associated with a higher gender score (i.e., social characteristics traditionally ascribed to women) and with a cytokine signature characterized by IL-18, IL-8, IL-23. Conclusions: Integrating clinical, biological, and psycho-social features, we have optimized a sex- and gender-unbiased model that discriminates obstructive and non-obstructive CAD. Further mechanistic studies will shed light on the biological plausibility of these associations. Clinical trial registration: NCT02737982

    The Sex-Specific Detrimental Effect of Diabetes and Gender-Related Factors on Pre-admission Medication Adherence Among Patients Hospitalized for Ischemic Heart Disease: Insights From EVA Study

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    Background: Sex and gender-related factors have been under-investigated as relevant determinants of health outcomes across non-communicable chronic diseases. Poor medication adherence results in adverse clinical outcomes and sex differences have been reported among patients at high cardiovascular risk, such as diabetics. The effect of diabetes and gender-related factors on medication adherence among women and men at high risk for ischemic heart disease (IHD) has not yet been fully investigated.Aim: To explore the role of sex, gender-related factors, and diabetes in pre-admission medication adherence among patients hospitalized for IHD.Materials and Methods: Data were obtained from the Endocrine Vascular disease Approach (EVA) (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02737982), a prospective cohort of patients admitted for IHD. We selected patients with baseline information regarding the presence of diabetes, cardiovascular risk factors, and gender-related variables (i.e., gender identity, gender role, gender relations, institutionalized gender). Our primary outcome was the proportion of pre-admission medication adherence defined through a self-reported questionnaire. We performed a sex-stratified analysis of clinical and gender-related factors associated with pre-admission medication adherence.Results: Two-hundred eighty patients admitted for IHD (35% women, mean age 70), were included. Around one-fourth of the patients were low-adherent to therapy before hospitalization, regardless of sex. Low-adherent patients were more likely diabetic (40%) and employed (40%). Sex-stratified analysis showed that low-adherent men were more likely to be employed (58 vs. 33%) and not primary earners (73 vs. 54%), with more masculine traits of personality, as compared with medium-high adherent men. Interestingly, women reporting medication low-adherence were similar for clinical and gender-related factors to those with medium-high adherence, except for diabetes (42 vs. 20%, p = 0.004). In a multivariate adjusted model only employed status was associated with poor medication adherence (OR 0.55, 95%CI 0.31–0.97). However, in the sex-stratified analysis, diabetes was independently associated with medication adherence only in women (OR 0.36; 95%CI 0.13–0.96), whereas a higher masculine BSRI was the only factor associated with medication adherence in men (OR 0.59, 95%CI 0.35–0.99).Conclusion: Pre-admission medication adherence is common in patients hospitalized for IHD, regardless of sex. However, patient-related factors such as diabetes, employment, and personality traits are associated with adherence in a sex-specific manner

    Tackling pancreatic cancer with metronomic chemotherapy

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    Pancreatic tumours, the majority of which arise from the exocrine pancreas, have recently shown an increasing incidence in western countries. Over the past few years more and more new selective molecules directed against specific cellular targets have become available for cancer therapy, leading to significant improvements. However, despite such advances in therapy, prognosis of pancreatic cancer remains disappointing. Metronomic chemotherapy (MCT), which consists in the administration of continuous, low-dose anticancer drugs, has demonstrated the ability to suppress tumour growth. Thus, it may provide an additional therapeutic opportunity for counteracting the progression of the tumour. Here we discuss evidence arising from preclinical and clinical studies regarding the use of MCT in pancreatic cancer. Good results have generally been achieved in preclinical studies, particularly when MCT was combined with standard dose chemotherapy or antinflammatory, antiangiogenic and immunostimolatory agents. The few available clinical experiences, which mainly refer to retrospective data, have reported good tolerability though mild activity of metronomic schedules. Further studies are therefore awaited to confirm both preclinical findings and the preliminary clinical data
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