3,075 research outputs found

    Collaboration between a human group and artificial intelligence can improve prediction of multiple sclerosis course. A proof-of-principle study

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    Background: Multiple sclerosis has an extremely variable natural course. In most patients, disease starts with a relapsing-remitting (RR) phase, which proceeds to a secondary progressive (SP) form. The duration of the RR phase is hard to predict, and to date predictions on the rate of disease progression remain suboptimal. This limits the opportunity to tailor therapy on an individual patient's prognosis, in spite of the choice of several therapeutic options. Approaches to improve clinical decisions, such as collective intelligence of human groups and machine learning algorithms are widely investigated. Methods: Medical students and a machine learning algorithm predicted the course of disease on the basis of randomly chosen clinical records of patients that attended at the Multiple Sclerosis service of Sant'Andrea hospital in Rome. Results: A significant improvement of predictive ability was obtained when predictions were combined with a weight that depends on the consistence of human (or algorithm) forecasts on a given clinical record. Conclusions: In this work we present proof-of-principle that human-machine hybrid predictions yield better prognoses than machine learning algorithms or groups of humans alone. To strengthen this preliminary result, we propose a crowdsourcing initiative to collect prognoses by physicians on an expanded set of patients

    Constituent power and independence processes: problems and perspectives in the light of the Catalan experience

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    This paper focuses on the potential reconfiguration of constituent power in the context of multinational States. It takes the view that sub-state claims pose relevant challenges to the traditional vision of constituent power as a unitary and monolithic essence. This seems all the more topical in Spain, where the Spanish Constitutional Court adheres to a unitary conception of constituent power. By contrast, our research has looked at whetherand to what extent it is possible to accept that such a unitary vision of constituent power may be challenged with the emergence of new social forces calling into question the ultimate allocation of competence. The so-called sovereignty process in Catalonia invites constitutionalscholars to engage in this debate, particularly in the light of the last unilateral referendum on independence from Spain that took place on 1st October 2017. Whereas the referendum has often been framed within the so-called theory of the right to decide, we ask whether it is possible to understand it instead as an expression of an emerging constituent power

    A symmetry-adapted numerical scheme for SDEs

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    We propose a geometric numerical analysis of SDEs admitting Lie symmetries which allows us to individuate a symmetry adapted coordinates system where the given SDE has notable invariant properties. An approximation scheme preserving the symmetry properties of the equation is introduced. Our algorithmic procedure is applied to the family of general linear SDEs for which two theoretical estimates of the numerical forward error are established.Comment: A numerical example adde

    Constitutional Courts Dealing with Electoral Systems: a Comparative Look at Constitutional Adjudication on Electoral Equality

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    The article employs comparative analysis to investigate the nexus between constitutional adjudication and electoral systems through the perspective of the principle of equality in elections. It delves into the different reasoning of the constitutional courts of Germany, Italy and Spain, trying to unpack the various interpretations attached to that principle under the case law of these courts. In particular, it explores the arguments revolving around the interpretation of equality as the “one person, one vote” rule and its potential wider meaning, comparing the approaches adopted in the case law of the three jurisdictions. On a theoretical level, this submission aims to provide insights on the functions and limits of constitutional review in electoral matters and, more generally, to contribute to studies of constitutional law concerned with the tension between legislative discretion and the role of constitutional courts

    Sleep Period Optimization Model For Layered Video Service Delivery Over eMBMS Networks

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    Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A) and the evolved Multimedia Broadcast Multicast System (eMBMS) are the most promising technologies for the delivery of highly bandwidth demanding applications. In this paper we propose a green resource allocation strategy for the delivery of layered video streams to users with different propagation conditions. The goal of the proposed model is to minimize the user energy consumption. That goal is achieved by minimizing the time required by each user to receive the broadcast data via an efficient power transmission allocation model. A key point in our system model is that the reliability of layered video communications is ensured by means of the Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) approach. Analytical results show that the proposed resource allocation model ensures the desired quality of service constraints, while the user energy footprint is significantly reduced.Comment: Proc. of IEEE ICC 2015, Selected Areas in Communications Symposium - Green Communications Track, to appea

    Leptomeningitis in a person with radiologically isolated syndrome and latent tuberculosis. A case report with implications for clinical research

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    A 39-year-old man, followed with serial MRI of CNS for a radiologically isolate syndrome (RIS, a recently described condition considered a subclinical form of MS), was hospitalized for the occurrence of a leptomeningitis. Routine blood tests and contrast enhanced total body CT scan were unremarkable. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination showed increase of cells (22 mononuclear cells/mm3), albumin (294 mg/L), immunoglobilins G (161 mg/L) and Link Index (1.9), with 17 oligoclonal bands. Microbiological examinations of CSF (including those for Koch’s Bacillus) were negative. The Mantoux reaction and the QuantiFERON test were positive, featuring a latent tuberculosis (TB). The patient started prophylaxis with rifampicin and isoniazid for four months, until a new MRI showed the disappearance of the leptomeningeal enhancement, and the stability of white matter brain and spinal cord lesions. Two other MRI scans showed a new brain Gd-enhancing lesion nine month after anti-tubercular therapy and, after additional six months, new cerebral and spinal cord areas. This case provides the following suggestions about the effects of TB infection and related therapies on the underlying autoimmune status: the infection, while actively present, did not exacerbate the RIS condition; the worsening nine months after the prophylaxis discontinuation might have been the ‘natural’ evolution of RIS condition. Alternative speculative hypotheses include a remote effect of the infection, of isoniazid (that was reported in some cases to trigger MS), or the result of the clearance of the infection itself. Irrespective of the existence of any interaction between RIS and TB infection, It seems important to collect cases with MS-related diseases and concomitant infections, that may provide clues about disease pathogenesis and treatment

    Molecular Research of Endometrial Pathophysiology

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    The endometrium has been the subject of intense research in a variety of clinical settings, because of its importance in the reproductive process and its role in women’s health. In the past 15 years, significant efforts have been invested in defining the molecular phenotype of the receptive phase endometrium as well as of various endometrial pathologies. Although this has generated a wealth of information on the molecular landscape of human endometrium, there is a need to complement this information in light of the novel methodologies and innovative technical approaches. The focus of this International Journal of Molecular Sciences Special Issue is on molecular and cellular mechanisms of endometrium and endometrium-related disorders. The progress made in the molecular actions of steroids, in the metabolism of steroids and intracrinology, in endometrial intracellular pathways, in stem cells biology, as well as in the molecular alterations underlying endometrium-related pathologies has been the focus of the reviews and papers included

    Stability Analysis of Self-propelled Hydrodynamic Irrigation Machines Used for Food Industry Crops

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    Some critical limit conditions for the stability of the self-propelled hydrodynamic irrigation machine used for food industry crops, have been studied, and experimental and numerical tests have been carried out for their determination. The strength forces necessary for the machine overturn have been calculated by a computer code realized in Matlab R2019a, and the corresponding values are listed as function of the soil slope angle ψ of the weight W and the pipeline strength force., With this aim, different operative conditions for the considered machine have been examined so that the pipeline strength force, under the following conditions: water filled pipeline of and empty pipeline;dry and wet soil. By analyzing the data measured in the open field, on a considered machine with a coil diameter of 3 m, the different contributes to the total rewinding strength have been examined during the considered tests. Further, it has been possible to deduce that by changing; only the value of the water pressure, the total value of the rewinding strength force increased by 100 daN, which is clearly due; to the changing pressure which increases the stiffness of the polyethylene pipeline. Moreover, other very dangerous limit conditions were determined during the rewinding phase of the pipeline on overflooded soil (also due to a rain storm), with a pipeline completely unwound on the soil and sunk into it. In these critical conditions, it has been noted that, to perform the operating phase, it is possible to reach a very high T value, which can cause the machine overturning even for ψ = 0 (horizontal case)

    Synthesis of fructo-oligosaccharides using grape must and sucrose as raw materials

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    Grape must market has been rising and there is an increasing interest to use it as a natural replacement for traditional sugars. Food or beverages with prebiotic compounds, including fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), emerge as an alternative for the new health style trend. The aim of this work was to investigate whether the combination of grape must with sucrose was a suitable raw material for the synthesis of FOS. This way, a prebiotic syrup containing fructose and FOS, potentially useful for the formulation of foods and beverages, could be obtained. The main process consisted of three stages, namely conditioning of grape must (oxidation of the initial glucose concentration, stage 1), synthesis of FOS [incorporation of 20, 30 and 55% (w/w) sucrose, and 3.5% v/v Viscozyme L − 4.2 U/mg-, stage 2], and conditioning of the final product (oxidation of the glucose generated during the synthesis, stage 3). At stage 1, glucose concentration decreased from 222.8 mg/mL to 47.2 mg/mL, representing a decay of about 80% regarding the initial concentration of glucose. At stage 2, incorporating 20% (w/w) sucrose was not enough to impulse FOS synthesis. In turn, although 30 and 55% (w/w) sucrose produced very similar concentrations of total FOS (DP3 + DP4), 55% (w/w) sucrose led to higher glucose generation and less DP4 formation. Hence, 30% (w/w) sucrose was the condition selected for the synthesis and further conditioning of the obtained product (stage 3). In these conditions, the final product consisted of more than 30% of short chain FOS (19% and 13% of DP3 and DP4, respectively), 55% fructose and less than 11% of glucose and sucrose. Considering that fructose has approximately double sweetening power than glucose, the obtained syrup has a bigger sweetening power in comparison with the original grape must, also providing the prebiotic benefits of FOS.Fil: Ureta, María Micaela. Provincia de Buenos Aires. Gobernación. Comisión de Investigaciones Científicas. Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Criotecnología de Alimentos. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - La Plata. Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Criotecnología de Alimentos. Universidad Nacional de La Plata. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas. Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Criotecnología de Alimentos; ArgentinaFil: Romano, Nelson Gastón. Provincia de Buenos Aires. Gobernación. Comisión de Investigaciones Científicas. Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Criotecnología de Alimentos. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - La Plata. Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Criotecnología de Alimentos. Universidad Nacional de La Plata. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas. Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Criotecnología de Alimentos; ArgentinaFil: Kakisu, Emiliano Javier. Universidad Nacional de Lanús; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; ArgentinaFil: Gomez Zavaglia, Andrea. Provincia de Buenos Aires. Gobernación. Comisión de Investigaciones Científicas. Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Criotecnología de Alimentos. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - La Plata. Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Criotecnología de Alimentos. Universidad Nacional de La Plata. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas. Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Criotecnología de Alimentos; Argentin
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