49 research outputs found

    WER SCHÜTZT DAS GRÜNLAND? – ANALYSEN ZUR DYNAMIK DES DAUERGRÜNLANDS UND ENTSPRECHENDER SCHUTZMECHANISMEN

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    Agrarumweltpolitik, InVeKoS-Daten, Landnutzung, GrĂŒnlandumbruch, Environmental Economics and Policy, Land Economics/Use, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,

    Auswertung von Daten des Integrierten Verwaltungs- und Kontrollsystems zur AbschĂ€tzung der EU-Agrarreform auf Umwelt und Landschaft: Bericht fĂŒr das F+E-Vorhaben 'Naturschutzfachliche Bewertung der GAP-Effizienzsteigerung durch Nutzung bestehender DatenbestĂ€nde', gefördert durch das Bundesamt fĂŒr Naturschutz (BfN) mit Mitteln des Bundesministeriums fĂŒr Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit

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    Der vorliegende Arbeitsbericht entstand im Rahmen des F+E-Vorhabens 'Naturschutzfachliche Bewertung der GAP - Effizienzsteigerung durch Nutzung bestehender DatenbestĂ€nde', das durch das Bundesamt fĂŒr Naturschutz (BfN) mit Mitteln des Bundesministeriums fĂŒr Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit gefördert wurde. Ziel dieses Projektes war die Untersuchung flĂ€chenbezogener Auswirkungen der im Jahr 2003 beschlossenen EU-Agrarreform in Hinblick auf naturschutzrelevante Fragestellungen. Grundlage fĂŒr quantitative Analysen bildeten die Daten des Integrierten Verwaltungs- und Kontrollsystems (InVeKoS), Fachkarten zu Schutzgebieten und flĂ€chenbezogenen Zielen des Natur- und Wasserschutzes sowie standortbezogene Informationen aus vier BundeslĂ€ndern. Das Projekt diente damit auch dazu, Methoden zur Auswertung von InVeKoS-Daten in VerknĂŒpfung mit georeferenzierten Fachdaten zu entwickeln und Erfahrungen mit der Evaluierung von Maßnahmen der ersten SĂ€ule der Gemeinsamen Agrarpolitik (GAP) zu sammeln. Einen besonderen Schwerpunkt bei der Analyse nahm die Entwicklung der GrĂŒnlandflĂ€chen ein. Mit Hilfe der InVeKoS-Daten lassen sich rĂ€umlich hoch aufgelöste Informationen ĂŒber die Dynamik der landwirtschaftlichen FlĂ€chennutzung abbilden. Dabei zeigt sich, dass in Bezug auf GrĂŒnlandverluste neben der Umwandlung in Ackerland auch die 'De-Aktivierung' von im Jahr 2005 im InVeKoS gemeldeten GrĂŒnlandflĂ€chen eine Rolle spielt, da fĂŒr relevante FlĂ€chenumfĂ€nge in den Folgejahren keine AntrĂ€ge mehr gestellt wurden. Anhand der Daten fĂŒr 2005 und 2007 konnte fĂŒr ĂŒber 40.000 Hektar FlĂ€che eine Umwandlung von GrĂŒnland in Ackerland nachgewiesen werden, im Vergleich zu einem GrĂŒnlandflĂ€chenverlust nach Cross Compliance-Statistik von insgesamt ca. 80.000 Hektar. Die Differenz ist auf 'De-Aktivierungen' zurĂŒckzufĂŒhren. Die Umwandlung von GrĂŒnland konnt auch innerhalb ökologisch sensibler Kulissen, z. B. auf Moorböden, nachgewiesen werden. ZusĂ€tzlich wurden bestehende beihilfe- und fachrechtliche Regelungen aus Agrar- und Umweltpolitik hinsichtlich möglicher Schutzwirkungen fĂŒr GrĂŒnland betrachtet. Der Bericht schließt mit Empfehlungen insbesondere zu GrĂŒnlandschutz, zur Weiterentwicklung des Kontrollsystems fĂŒr Landschaftselemente und zur Nutzbarkeit von InVeKoS-Daten. -- This report emerged in the course of the R&D project 'Evaluation of the CAP from a nature conservation point of view - increased efficiency through use of existing data sets', which was financed by the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (Bundesamt fĂŒr Naturschutz) with funds of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety. The aim of this project was to investigate area-related impacts in terms of nature conservation due to the EU agricultural reform of 2003. The basis for quantitative analyses were data of the Integrated Administration and Control System (IACS), technical maps on protected areas and area related objectives for nature and water conservation, and site-specific information from four German federal states. Thus, the project served as well for developing methodologies for the analysis of IACS-data in connection with geo referenced technical data, and for collecting experiences with the evaluation of first pillar measures of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). A special focus was on the development of the grassland area. IACS-data provide highly disaggregated spatial information on the dynamic of agricultural land use. Regarding loss of grassland it could be shown that besides a conversion into arable land the 'de-activation' of grassland initially IACS-registered in 2005 played a role, because relevant areas were not registered in subsequent years. On basis of data for 2005 and 2007, conversion of grassland into arable use could be detected on more than 40,000 hectare, compared to 80.000 hectare grassland loss according to cross compliance statistics. The difference is due to 'de-activation'. However, the analyses detected conversion of grassland to arable land as well in ecologically sensitive areas, e.g. on organic soils. In addition existing support payments and mandatory rules from agricultural and environmental policy were examined with respect to possible protection effects for grassland. The report concludes with recommendations, particularly regarding the protection of grassland, a further development of the control system for landscape elements, and the usability of IACS-data.Agrarreform,InVeKoS-Daten,FlĂ€chennutzung,GrĂŒnland : Naturschutz,Agricultural reform,IACS-data,land use,grassland,nature conservation

    Mutant hepatitis B virus surface antigens (HBsAg) are immunogenic but may have a changed specificity

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    AbstractMutant hepatitis B virus with substitutions within the coding region for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) has been found naturally in chronic carriers. It is therefore important to clarify whether the identified substitutions within the HBsAg have impact on the antigenicity and immunogenicity of HBsAg. A total of nine mutated HBV s-genes with single representative mutations were generated by site-directed mutagenesis and subcloned into an expression vector. The binding of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to these mutant HBsAg (mtHBsAg) was tested by immunofluorescence (IF) staining of cells transfected with the expression vectors. The amino acid (aa) substitutions like G145R, F134S, and C147W affected the binding of anti-HBs antibodies to corresponding mtHBsAg to different extents. The impact of aa substitutions G145R and F134S on the immunogenicity was accessed by genetic immunization of mice with vectors expressing middle HBsAg with the corresponding mutations. The immunized mice developed antibodies to recombinant HBsAg containing the HBV preS region and HBsAg-specific cytotoxic T-cell. However, the development of antibody response to wild-type small HBsAg was significantly impaired by the aa substitutions in HBsAg. Based on this fact, we further investigated whether the mtHBsAg with the aa substitution G145R is able to induce mutant-specific antibody responses. Strikingly, serum samples from mice immunized with mtHBsAg with G145R recognized plasma-derived mtHBsAg. Two mouse MAbs specific to mtHBsAg were generated. One MAb recognized mtHBsAg with G145R but not wild type and other mtHBsAg. We conclude that HBsAg with aa substitutions are immunogenic but may have a changed fine specificity

    Methyl- and acetyltransferases are stable epigenetic markers postmortem

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    Postmortem brain tissue has been reported to be suitable to delineate regional pattern of possible disturbances underlying epigenetic functionality. However, from many parameters that have been detected in postmortem brain regions it is noteworthy that an effect of postmortem interval (PMI), storage time and premortem parameters should not be underestimated. Our previous investigation revealed that tryptophan (TRP) levels in postmortem brain tissue is affected by PMI and storage time. Since, alteration in TRP levels are assumed to be due to protein degradation, we further investigated whether TRP correlates to variables such as RNA, proteins and DNA modulators. In addition, we aimed to elucidate whether established postmortem variables may influence epigenetic parameters. These were investigated in well characterized postmortem human brain tissue originating from the European Brain Bank consortium II (BNEII). We could confirm previous findings, in which some protein levels alter because of prolonged PMI. Similarly, we demonstrated an influence of increased storage period on TRP levels, which might indicate degradation of proteins. Still not all proteins degrade in a similar manner, therefore a specific analysis for the protein of interest would be recommended. We found that methyltransferase- and acetyltransferase-activities were relatively preserved with PMI and storage duration. In conclusion, preservation of acetyltransferase- and methyltransferase-activities provides possible evidence of stability for epigenetic studies using postmortem tissu

    Glioblastoma multiforme with oligodendroglial component (GBMO): favorable outcome after post-operative radiotherapy and chemotherapy with nimustine (ACNU) and teniposide (VM26)

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    BACKGROUND: The presence of an oligodendroglial component within a glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is considered a prognostically favorable factor, but the clinical outcome of patients with glioblastoma multiforme with oligodendroglial component (GBMO) after combined post-operative radiotherapy and chemotherapy has rarely been reported. METHODS: We analyzed overall and progression-free survival in a group of ten consecutive patients initially diagnosed with GBMO between 1996 and 2004 (4.2% of all GBM patients). Median (range) age was 54 (34–73) years, 90% were resected and median radiotherapy dose was 54 (45–60.6) Gy. 80% of patients received post-operative chemotherapy with nimustine (ACNU) and VM26 (teniposide) for a median of 3.5 (1–6) cycles, the remainder were treated with post-operative radiotherapy alone. All specimens were reviewed by an experienced neuropathologist. RESULTS: Neuropathological re-evaluation revealed GBM with an oligodendroglial component of 30% or less in five cases, predominant oligoastrocytic tumors with focal areas of GBM in four patients and WHO grade III oligoastrocytoma with questionable transition to GBM in one patient. Four of ten patients were alive at at 40, 41, 41 and 82 months. The median overall survival (Kaplan-Meier) was 26 months, the 2-year survival rate was 60% (progression-free survival: 9.8 months and 40%, respectively). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, patients with GBMO treated with post-operative radiotherapy and chemotherapy with ACNU/VM26 had a better prognosis than reported for GBM in modern chemoradiation series

    Staging of Neurofibrillary Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease: A Study of the BrainNet Europe Consortium

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    It has been recognized that molecular classifications will form the basis for neuropathological diagnostic work in the future. Consequently, in order to reach a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the presence of hyperphosphorylated tau (HP-tau) and ÎČ-amyloid protein in brain tissue must be unequivocal. In addition, the stepwise progression of pathology needs to be assessed. This paper deals exclusively with the regional assessment of AD-related HP-tau pathology. The objective was to provide straightforward instructions to aid in the assessment of AD-related immunohistochemically (IHC) detected HP-tau pathology and to test the concordance of assessments made by 25 independent evaluators. The assessment of progression in 7-”m-thick sections was based on assessment of IHC labeled HP-tau immunoreactive neuropil threads (NTs). Our results indicate that good agreement can be reached when the lesions are substantial, i.e., the lesions have reached isocortical structures (stage V–VI absolute agreement 91%), whereas when only mild subtle lesions were present the agreement was poorer (I–II absolute agreement 50%). Thus, in a research setting when the extent of lesions is mild, it is strongly recommended that the assessment of lesions should be carried out by at least two independent observers
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