1,349 research outputs found

    Trabalho informal no espaço público a partir da perspectiva dos direitos humanos

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    Today, the issue of informal work is of great importance in terms of analysis and reflection of a situation that becomes problematic when people working in the public space face relevant challenges in order to make their rights legitimate. In this framework is inserted the theme that is analyzed in this case for the purpose of, delimiting the conditions through which stationary and street vendors of the historic center of Chiquinquirá, are visible as a social phenomenon that must be served from their recognition as people entitled to work, to the use and enjoyment of public space. In this case, the reflection focuses on the particular context of the town of Chiquinquirá in the department of Boyacá, Colombia and is located within the framework of human rights. Methodologically, it corresponds to qualitative research with a case study approach and the use of the interview as a means of obtaining information provided by the participants; analysis of it is done through a logical and coherent process that leads to establishing the significant of the researched reality. The main finding states that informal vendors are not treated and recognized as subjects with the right to work in a context that does not provide them with conditions to live, develop their skills and life projects both individually and as a family group.En la actualidad, el tema del trabajo informal reviste gran importancia en cuanto análisis y reflexión de una situación que se convierte en problemática cuando las personas que trabajan en el espacio público se ven enfrentados a retos relevantes para conseguir hacer legítimos sus derechos. En este marco se inserta la temática que se analizó en este caso con el propósito de, delimitar las condiciones a través de las cuales los vendedores estacionarios y ambulantes del centro histórico de Chiquinquirá, son visibilizados como fenómeno social que debe ser atendido a partir de su reconocimiento como personas con derecho al trabajo, al uso y disfrute del espacio público. La reflexión se centró en el contexto particular de la localidad de Chiquinquirá en el departamento de Boyacá, Colombia y se ubicó en el marco de los derechos humanos. Metodológicamente, corresponde a una investigación cualitativa con enfoque de estudio de caso y el uso de la entrevista como medio para la obtención de información proporcionada por los participantes; el análisis de la misma se hizo mediante un proceso lógico y coherente que llevó a establecer lo significativo de la realidad investigada. El principal hallazgo expresa que las y los vendedores  informales no son tratados y reconocidos como sujetos con derecho al trabajo en un contexto que no les proporciona condiciones para vivir, desarrollar sus capacidades y proyectos de vida tanto de forma individual como del grupo familiar.  Atualmente, o trabalho informal é importante para a análise e a reflexão acerca de uma situação que se torna problemática quando as pessoas que trabalham no espaço público enfrentam desafios relevantes para legitimar seus direitos. Este artigo se insere nesse contexto e tem o objetivo de delimitar as condições dos vendedores informais do centro histórico de Chiquinquirá, em Boyacá (Colômbia), vistos como um fenômeno social que deve ser atendido para seu reconhecimento como pessoas com direito a trabalhar e a usar e desfrutar do espaço público. A metodologia corresponde a uma pesquisa qualitativa com foco no estudo de caso que usa a entrevista como meio para obter informações. A análise foi desenvolvida a partir de um processo lógico e coerente que levou a estabelecer o significativo da realidade investigada. A principal descoberta é que os comerciantes informais não são tratados nem reconhecidos como sujeitos com direito a trabalhar, em um contexto que não lhes proporciona condições para viver, desenvolver suas capacidades e projetos de vida tanto de forma individual quanto familiar

    Characteristics of emergency medicine residency programs in Colombia

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    Q2Q1Artículo original1120-1127Introduction: Emergency medicine (EM) is in different stages of development around the world. Colombia has made significant strides in EM development in the last two decades and recognized it as a medical specialty in 2005. The country now has seven EM residency programs: three in the capital city of Bogotá, two in Medellin, one in Manizales, and one in Cali. The seven residency programs are in different stages of maturity, with the oldest founded 20 years ago and two founded in the last two years. The objective of this study was to characterize these seven residency programs. Methods: We conducted semi-structured interviews with faculty and residents from all the existing programs in 2013-2016. Topics included program characteristics and curricula. Results: Colombian EM residencies are three-year programs, with the exception of one four-year program. Programs accept 3-10 applicants yearly. Only one program has free tuition and the rest charge tuition. The number of EM faculty ranges from 2-15. EM rotation requirements range from 11-33% of total clinical time. One program does not have a pediatric rotation. The other programs require 1-2 months of pediatrics or pediatric EM. Critical care requirements range from 4-7 months. Other common rotations include anesthesia, general surgery, internal medicine, obstetrics, gynecology, orthopedics, ophthalmology, radiology, toxicology, psychiatry, neurology, cardiology, pulmonology, and trauma. All programs offer 4-6 hours of protected didactic time each week. Some programs require Advanced Cardiac Life Support, Pediatric Advanced Life Support and Advanced Trauma Life Support, with some programs providing these trainings in-house or subsidizing the cost. Most programs require one research project for graduation. Resident evaluations consist of written tests and oral exams several times per year. Point-of-care ultrasound training is provided in four of the seven programs. Conclusion: As emergency medicine continues to develop in Colombia, more residency programs are expected to emerge. Faculty development and sustainability of academic pursuits will be critically important. In the long term, the specialty will need to move toward certifying board exams and professional development through a national EM organization to promote standardization across programs

    Antimicrobial resistance among migrants in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    BACKGROUND: Rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are rising globally and there is concern that increased migration is contributing to the burden of antibiotic resistance in Europe. However, the effect of migration on the burden of AMR in Europe has not yet been comprehensively examined. Therefore, we did a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify and synthesise data for AMR carriage or infection in migrants to Europe to examine differences in patterns of AMR across migrant groups and in different settings. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, and Scopus with no language restrictions from Jan 1, 2000, to Jan 18, 2017, for primary data from observational studies reporting antibacterial resistance in common bacterial pathogens among migrants to 21 European Union-15 and European Economic Area countries. To be eligible for inclusion, studies had to report data on carriage or infection with laboratory-confirmed antibiotic-resistant organisms in migrant populations. We extracted data from eligible studies and assessed quality using piloted, standardised forms. We did not examine drug resistance in tuberculosis and excluded articles solely reporting on this parameter. We also excluded articles in which migrant status was determined by ethnicity, country of birth of participants' parents, or was not defined, and articles in which data were not disaggregated by migrant status. Outcomes were carriage of or infection with antibiotic-resistant organisms. We used random-effects models to calculate the pooled prevalence of each outcome. The study protocol is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42016043681. FINDINGS: We identified 2274 articles, of which 23 observational studies reporting on antibiotic resistance in 2319 migrants were included. The pooled prevalence of any AMR carriage or AMR infection in migrants was 25·4% (95% CI 19·1-31·8; I2 =98%), including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (7·8%, 4·8-10·7; I2 =92%) and antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (27·2%, 17·6-36·8; I2 =94%). The pooled prevalence of any AMR carriage or infection was higher in refugees and asylum seekers (33·0%, 18·3-47·6; I2 =98%) than in other migrant groups (6·6%, 1·8-11·3; I2 =92%). The pooled prevalence of antibiotic-resistant organisms was slightly higher in high-migrant community settings (33·1%, 11·1-55·1; I2 =96%) than in migrants in hospitals (24·3%, 16·1-32·6; I2 =98%). We did not find evidence of high rates of transmission of AMR from migrant to host populations. INTERPRETATION: Migrants are exposed to conditions favouring the emergence of drug resistance during transit and in host countries in Europe. Increased antibiotic resistance among refugees and asylum seekers and in high-migrant community settings (such as refugee camps and detention facilities) highlights the need for improved living conditions, access to health care, and initiatives to facilitate detection of and appropriate high-quality treatment for antibiotic-resistant infections during transit and in host countries. Protocols for the prevention and control of infection and for antibiotic surveillance need to be integrated in all aspects of health care, which should be accessible for all migrant groups, and should target determinants of AMR before, during, and after migration. FUNDING: UK National Institute for Health Research Imperial Biomedical Research Centre, Imperial College Healthcare Charity, the Wellcome Trust, and UK National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit in Healthcare-associated Infections and Antimictobial Resistance at Imperial College London

    Forward-central two-particle correlations in p-Pb collisions at root s(NN)=5.02 TeV

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    Two-particle angular correlations between trigger particles in the forward pseudorapidity range (2.5 2GeV/c. (C) 2015 CERN for the benefit of the ALICE Collaboration. Published by Elsevier B. V.Peer reviewe

    Long-range angular correlations on the near and away side in p–Pb collisions at