2 research outputs found

    Efeitos na cognição e longevidade

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    Introdu√ß√£o: O jejum pode ser entendido como a abstin√™ncia volunt√°ria de comida ou bebidas com conte√ļdo energ√©tico ou cal√≥rico por per√≠odos que geralmente come√ßam nas 12h e se podem estender por dias ou semanas. O jejum √© praticado desde a antiguidade em que as popula√ß√Ķes por raz√Ķes culturais ou religiosas abstinham-se voluntariamente de comer, como acontece no Ramad√£o. O jejum tem vindo gradativamente a ser recomendado para tratamento ou preven√ß√£o de v√°rias doen√ßas e mesmo em indiv√≠duos com sa√ļde que procuram um estilo de vida mais saud√°vel. Descobertas provenientes de investiga√ß√Ķes em animais e estudos mais recentes efetuados em humanos indicam que o jejum pode providenciar estrat√©gias eficazes para retardar o envelhecimento e aumentar a performance cognitiva. Objetivos: O objetivo desta revis√£o √© providenciar uma vis√£o abrangente e contextualizada do impacto do jejum no √Ęmbito da cogni√ß√£o e da longevidade M√©todos: An√°lise de artigos indexados na base de dados PubMed e Google Scholar, entre outras. Para efetuar a pesquisa utilizaram-se palavras-chave como ‚Äúfasting‚ÄĚ, ‚Äúcaloric restriction‚ÄĚ, ‚Äúenergy restriction‚ÄĚ, ‚Äúcognition‚ÄĚ, ‚Äúlongevity‚ÄĚ e ‚Äúautophagy‚ÄĚ. Resultados: A vasta maioria artigos cient√≠ficos analisados valida os benef√≠cios do jejum na √°rea cognitiva onde √© destacado o aumento do fator neurotr√≥fico derivado do c√©rebro (BDNF) e a cetog√©nese nas restri√ß√Ķes cal√≥ricas mais longa, bem como o aumento da longevidade, onde os mecanismos que desencadeiam a autofagia t√™m papeis relevantes. Conclus√£o: O jejum √© uma abordagem n√£o-farmacol√≥gica promissora e parece ter efeitos ben√©ficos no dom√≠nio cognitivo e no atraso do envelhecimento. A maior parte dos artigos cient√≠ficos revistos demonstraram existir uma correla√ß√£o positiva entre jejum e as duas √°reas investigadas. Os efeitos positivos incluem o aumento da plasticidade cerebral, da neurog√©nese e da biog√©nese mitocondrial na cogni√ß√£o. A autofagia e os mecanismos que a potenciam podem ser um potencial alvo para modular a esperan√ßa de vida em animais. Ainda n√£o existem ind√≠cios fortes para assegurar que estas infer√™ncias t√™m utilidade pr√°tica no nosso quotidiano, visto que s√£o relativamente escassos os estudos em seres humanos. √Č relevante que a comunidade cient√≠fica se continue a debru√ßar sobre este tema e que sejam efetuados estudos adicionais para que futuramente possamos confirmar reconhecer se os seus benef√≠cios s√£o realmente determinantes para a nossa esp√©cie.Background: Fasting may be understood as the voluntary abstinence of food or drinks with energy or caloric content for periods that usually start at 12 hours and may extend for days or weeks. Fasting is practiced since antiquity in which people for cultural or religious reasons voluntarily abstain from eating, as happens in Ramadan. Fasting has been gradually being recommended for treatment or prevention of various diseases and even in healthy individuals seeking a healthier lifestyle. Findings from animal research and more recent studies in humans indicate that fasting can provide effective strategies for slowing aging and increasing cognitive performance. Objectives: The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive and contextualized view of the impact of fasting on cognition and longevity. Methods: Analysis of indexed articles in the PubMed and Google Scholar database, among others. Key words such as "fasting", "obesity", "diabetes", "caloric restriction", "energy restriction", "cognition", "longevity" were used to carry out the research Results: The vast majority of scientific papers analyzed validates the benefits of fasting in the cognitive area where the enhanced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and ketogenesis in longer caloric restrictions are highlighted, as well as increased longevity, where the mechanisms that trigger autophagy have relevant roles. Conclusion: Fasting is a promising non-pharmacological approach and appears to have beneficial effects on the cognitive domain and on the delay of aging. Most of the reviewed scientific papers have shown a positive correlation between fasting and the two studied areas. Positive effects include increased brain plasticity, neurogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis in cognition. Autophagy and the mechanisms that potentiate it may be a potential target for modulating animal life expectancy. There is still no strong evidence to ensure that these inferences have practical utility in our daily lives, since studies on humans are relatively scarce. It is important that the scientific community continue to look into this issue and that further studies are carried out so that we can confirm in the future that their benefits are truly determinant for our species

    Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition)

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    In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for bona fide autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field
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