54 research outputs found

### Relaxed spanners for directed disk graphs

Let $(V,\delta)$ be a finite metric space, where $V$ is a set of $n$ points
and $\delta$ is a distance function defined for these points. Assume that
$(V,\delta)$ has a constant doubling dimension $d$ and assume that each point
$p\in V$ has a disk of radius $r(p)$ around it. The disk graph that corresponds
to $V$ and $r(\cdot)$ is a \emph{directed} graph $I(V,E,r)$, whose vertices are
the points of $V$ and whose edge set includes a directed edge from $p$ to $q$
if $\delta(p,q)\leq r(p)$. In \cite{PeRo08} we presented an algorithm for
constructing a (1+\eps)-spanner of size O(n/\eps^d \log M), where $M$ is
the maximal radius $r(p)$. The current paper presents two results. The first
shows that the spanner of \cite{PeRo08} is essentially optimal, i.e., for
metrics of constant doubling dimension it is not possible to guarantee a
spanner whose size is independent of $M$. The second result shows that by
slightly relaxing the requirements and allowing a small perturbation of the
radius assignment, considerably better spanners can be constructed. In
particular, we show that if it is allowed to use edges of the disk graph
I(V,E,r_{1+\eps}), where r_{1+\eps}(p) = (1+\eps)\cdot r(p) for every $p\in
V$, then it is possible to get a (1+\eps)-spanner of size O(n/\eps^d) for
$I(V,E,r)$. Our algorithm is simple and can be implemented efficiently

### An Efficient Strongly Connected Components Algorithm in the Fault Tolerant Model

In this paper we study the problem of maintaining the strongly connected components of a graph in the presence of failures. In particular, we show that given a directed graph G=(V,E) with n=|V| and m=|E|, and an integer value kgeq 1, there is an algorithm that computes in O(2^{k}n log^2 n) time for any set F of size at most k the strongly connected components of the graph GF. The running time of our algorithm is almost optimal since the time for outputting the SCCs of GF is at least Omega(n). The algorithm uses a data structure that is computed in a preprocessing phase in polynomial time and is of size O(2^{k} n^2).
Our result is obtained using a new observation on the relation between strongly connected components (SCCs) and reachability. More specifically, one of the main building blocks in our result is a restricted variant of the problem in which we only compute strongly connected components that intersect a certain path. Restricting our attention to a path allows us to implicitly compute reachability between the path vertices and the rest of the graph in time that depends logarithmically rather than linearly in the size of the path. This new observation alone, however, is not enough, since we need to find an efficient way to represent the strongly connected components using paths. For this purpose we use a mixture of old and classical techniques such as the heavy path decomposition of Sleator and Tarjan and the classical Depth-First-Search algorithm. Although, these are by now standard techniques, we are not aware of any usage of them in the context of dynamic maintenance of SCCs. Therefore, we expect that our new insights and mixture of new and old techniques will be of independent interest

### On the Space Usage of Approximate Distance Oracles with Sub-2 Stretch

For an undirected unweighted graph $G=(V,E)$ with $n$ vertices and $m$ edges,
let $d(u,v)$ denote the distance from $u\in V$ to $v\in V$ in $G$. An
$(\alpha,\beta)$-stretch approximate distance oracle (ADO) for $G$ is a data
structure that given $u,v\in V$ returns in constant (or near constant) time a
value $\hat d (u,v)$ such that $d(u,v) \le \hat d (u,v) \le \alpha\cdot d(u,v)
+ \beta$, for some reals $\alpha >1, \beta$. If $\beta = 0$, we say that the
ADO has stretch $\alpha$.
Thorup and Zwick~\cite{thorup2005approximate} showed that one cannot beat
stretch 3 with subquadratic space (in terms of $n$) for general graphs.
P\v{a}tra\c{s}cu and Roditty~\cite{patrascu2010distance} showed that one can
obtain stretch 2 using $O(m^{1/3}n^{4/3})$ space, and so if $m$ is subquadratic
in $n$ then the space usage is also subquadratic. Moreover, P\v{a}tra\c{s}cu
and Roditty~\cite{patrascu2010distance} showed that one cannot beat stretch 2
with subquadratic space even for graphs where $m=\tilde{O}(n)$, based on the
set-intersection hypothesis.
In this paper we explore the conditions for which an ADO can be stored using
subquadratic space while supporting a sub-2 stretch. In particular, we show
that if the maximum degree in $G$ is $\Delta_G \leq O(n^{1/2-\varepsilon})$ for
some $0<\varepsilon \leq 1/2$, then there exists an ADO for $G$ that uses
$\tilde{O}(n^{2-\frac {2\varepsilon}{3}})$ space and has a sub-2 stretch.
Moreover, we prove a conditional lower bound, based on the set intersection
hypothesis, which states that for any positive integer $k \leq \log n$,
obtaining a sub-$\frac{k+2}{k}$ stretch for graphs with maximum degree
$\Theta(n^{1/k})$ requires quadratic space. Thus, for graphs with maximum
degree $\Theta(n^{1/2})$, obtaining a sub-2 stretch requires quadratic space

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