422 research outputs found

    Time Measurement In The Photoperiodic Control Of Flowering

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    Detection of nitrite by flow injection analysis using a novel paired emitter-detector diode (PEDD) as a photometric detector

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    An inexpensive flow injection analysis system for determining low concentration levels of nitrite employing the Griess reagent spectrophotometric method is reported. The novel photometric detector applied within this manifold is a highly sensitive, low cost, miniaturized light emitting diode (LED) based flow detector. This colorimetric detector employs two LEDs, operating one as a light source and the other as a light detector. The emitter LED is forward biased and the detector reverse biased. The emitter and detector LED had a λmax of 530 nm and 623 nm respectively. The emission spectrum of the emitter LED efficiently overlapped with the absorbance spectrum of 9 µM NO2 and Griess reagent complex. A simple timer circuit measures the time taken for the photocurrent generated by the emitter LED to discharge the detector LED from 5 V (logic 1) to 1.7 V (logic 0). The Griess reagent method employed for nitrite determination is based on the formation of an azo dye, the intensity of which is directly related to nitrite concentration. The linear range, reproducibility and limit of detection were investigated. Detection limits in the nanomolar range were achieved using the Paired Emitter-Detector Diode (PEDD) flow analysis device. For a comparative study the linear range and limit of detection were also investigated using a platewell reader. Higher sensitivity and improved precision were obtained from the PEDD compared to the commercially available plate well reader

    Improving Quality and Achieving Equity: A Guide for Hospital Leaders

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    Outlines the need to address racial/ethnic disparities in health care, highlights model practices, and makes step-by-step recommendations on creating a committee, collecting data, setting quality measures, evaluating, and implementing new strategies

    Cardiorespiratory requirements of the 6-min walk test in patients with left ventricular systolic disfunction and no major structural heart disease

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    The six-minute walk test (6-MWT) is widely used to assess functional status in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). The aims of the present study were: (1) to compare metabolic gas exchange during the 6-MWT in older patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) and in breathless patients with no major structural heart disease (MSHD); (2) to determine the exercise intensity of the 6-MWT relative to peak oxygen uptake; (3) to establish the accuracy and reproducibility of the Metamax 3B ergospirometer during an incremental workload. Twenty four older patients with LVSD (19 male; age 76 ± 5 years; BMI 27 ± 4), and 18 patients with no MSHD (12 male; age 75 ± 8 years; BMI 27 ± 4) attended on consecutive days at the same time. Patients completed a 6-MWT with metabolic gas exchange measurements using the Metamax 3B portable ergospirometer, and an incremental cycle ergometry test using both the Metamax 3B and Oxycon Pro metabolic cart. Patients returned and performed a second 6-MWT and an incremental treadmill test, metabolic gas exchange was measured with the Metamax 3B. In patients with LVSD, the 6-MWT was performed at a higher fraction of maximal exercise capacity (p = 0.02). The 6-MWT was performed below the anaerobic threshold in patients with LVSD (83 %) and in patients with no MSHD (61 %). The Metamax 3B showed satisfactory to high accuracy at 10 W and 20 W in patients with LVSD (r = 0.77 - 0.97, p < 0.05), and no MSHD (r = 0.76 - 0.94, p < 0.05). Metabolic gas exchange variables measured during the 6-MWT showed satisfactory to high day-to-day reproducibility in patients with LVSD (ICC = 0.75 - 0.98), but a higher variability was evident in participants with no MSHD (ICC = 0.62 - 0.97). The Metamax 3B portable ergospirometer is an accurate and reproducible device during submaximal, fixed rate exercise in older patients with LVSD and no MSHD. In elderly patients with LVSD and no MSHD, the 6-MWT should not be considered a maximal test of exercise capacity but rather a test of submaximal exercise performance. Our study demonstrates that the 6-MWT takes place at a higher proportion of peak oxygen uptake in patients with LVSD compared to those with no MSHD, and may be one reason why fatigue is a more prominent symptom in these patients

    Carbohydrate dose influences liver and muscle glycogenoxidation and performance during prolonged exercise

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    This study investigated the effect of carbohydrate (CHO) dose and composi-tion on fuel selection during exercise, specifically exogenous and endogenous(liver and muscle) CHO oxidation. Ten trained males cycled in a double-blindrandomized order on 5 occasions at 77%_VO2maxfor 2 h, followed by a30-min time-trial (TT) while ingesting either 60 g�h�1(LG) or 75 g�h�113C-glucose (HG), 90 g�h�1(LGF) or 112.5 g�h�113C-glucose-13C-fructose ([2:1]HGF) or placebo. CHO doses met or exceed reported intestinal transportersaturation for glucose and fructose. Indirect calorimetry and stable mass iso-tope [13C] tracer techniques were utilized to determine fuel use. TT perfor-mance was 93% “likely/probable” to be improved with LGF compared withthe other CHO doses. Exogenous CHO oxidation was higher for LGF andHGF compared with LG and HG (ES&gt;1.34,P&lt;0.01), with the relative con-tribution of LGF (24.5�5.3%)moderatelyhigher than HGF (20.6�6.2%,ES=0.68). Increasing CHO dose beyond intestinal saturation increased abso-lute (29.2�28.6 g�h�1,ES=1.28,P=0.06) and relative muscle glycogenutilization (9.2�6.9%, ES=1.68,P=0.014) for glucose-fructose ingestion.Absolute muscle glycogen oxidation between LG and HG was not significantlydifferent, but wasmoderatelyhigher for HG (ES=0.60). Liver glycogen oxida-tion was not significantly different between conditions, but absolute and rela-tive contributions weremoderatelyattenuated for LGF (19.3�9.4 g�h�1,6.8�3.1%) compared with HGF (30.5�17.7 g�h�1, 10.1�4.0%, ES=0.79& 0.98). Total fat oxidation was suppressed in HGF compared with all otherCHO conditions (ES&gt;0.90,P=0.024–0.17). In conclusion, there was no lin-ear dose response for CHO ingestion, with 90 g�h�1of glucose-fructose beingoptimal in terms of TT performance and fuel selectio

    Sensor node localisation using a stereo camera rig

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    In this paper, we use stereo vision processing techniques to detect and localise sensors used for monitoring simulated environmental events within an experimental sensor network testbed. Our sensor nodes communicate to the camera through patterns emitted by light emitting diodes (LEDs). Ultimately, we envisage the use of very low-cost, low-power, compact microcontroller-based sensing nodes that employ LED communication rather than power hungry RF to transmit data that is gathered via existing CCTV infrastructure. To facilitate our research, we have constructed a controlled environment where nodes and cameras can be deployed and potentially hazardous chemical or physical plumes can be introduced to simulate environmental pollution events in a controlled manner. In this paper we show how 3D spatial localisation of sensors becomes a straightforward task when a stereo camera rig is used rather than a more usual 2D CCTV camera

    Bridging the Digital Divide in Health Care: The Role of Health Information Technology in Addressing Racial and Ethnic Disparities

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    Racial and ethnic disparities in health care have been consistently documented in the diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of many common clinical conditions. There has been an acceleration of health information technology (HIT) implementation in the United States, with health care reform legislation including multiple provisions for collecting and using health information to improve and monitor quality and efficiency in health care. Despite an uneven and generally low level of implementation, research has demonstrated that HIT has the potential to improve quality of care and patient safety. If carefully designed and implemented, HIT also has the potential to eliminate disparities. Several root causes for disparities are amenable to interventions using HIT, particularly innovations in electronic health records, as well as strategies for chronic disease management. Recommendations regarding health care system, provider, and patient factors can help health care organizations address disparities as they adopt, expand, and tailor their HIT systems. In terms of health care system factors, organizations should (1) automate and standardize the collection of race/ethnicity and language data, (2) prioritize the use of the data for identifying disparities and tailoring improvement efforts, (3) focus HIT efforts to address fragmented care delivery for racial/ethnic minorities and limited-English-proficiency patients, (4) develop focused computerized clinical decision support systems for clinical areas with significant disparities, and (5) include input from racial/ethnic minorities and those with limited English proficiency in developing patient HIT tools to address the digital divide. As investments are made in HIT, consideration must be given to the impact that these innovations have on the quality and cost of health care for all patients, including those who experience disparities

    Indirect Action of Benzyladenine and Other Chemicals on Flowering of Pharbitis nil

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    Novel integrated paired emitter-detector diode (PEDD) as a miniaturized photometric detector in HPLC

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    A novel low power, low cost, highly sensitive, miniaturized light emitting diode (LED) based flow detector has been used as optical detector for the detection of sample components in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This colorimetric detector employs two LEDs, one operating in normal mode as a light source and the other is reverse biased to work as a light detector. Instead of measuring the photocurrent directly, a simple timer circuit is used to measure the time taken for the photocurrent generated by the emitter LED (λmax 500 nm) to discharge the detector LED (λmax 621 nm) from 5 V (logic 1) to 1.7 V (logic 0) to give digital output directly without using an A/D converter. Employing a post-column reagent method, a Nucleosil 100-7 (functionalised with iminodiacetic acid (IDA) groups) column was used to separate a mixture of transition metal complexes, manganese (II) and cobalt (II) in PAR. All optical measurements were taken by using both the in built HPLC variable wavelength detector and the proposed paired-emitter-detector-diode (PEDD) optical detector configured in-line for data comparison. The concentration range investigated using the PEDD was found to give a linear response to the Mn (II) and Co (II) PAR complexes. The effects of flow rate and emitter LED light source intensity were investigated. Under optimised conditions the PEDD detector offered a linear range of 0.9-100 µM and LOD of 0.09 µM for Mn-PAR complex. A linear range of 0.2-100 µM and LOD of 0.09 µM for Co-PAR complex was achieved