9,459 research outputs found

### FET charge sensor and voltage probe

A MOSFET structure having a biased gate covered with an insulator is described. The insulator is of such a thickness as to render the structure capable of giving a measure of accumulated charge. The structure is also capable of being used in a stacked structure as a particle spectrometer

### Pioneer Venus spacecraft charging model

Five environmental models were constructed to represent the solar wind and the upper, middle, and lower ionosphere of Venus. The spacecraft structure was modeled with over 140 passive electrical elements representing structural elements of the spacecraft. Electron, ion, secondary electron, and photocurrents to the spacecraft from the plasma were calculated, ignoring sheath effects. In all but one case, potentials of interest were less than 1 volt. Potential differences between widely separated points on the equipment shelf were less than 1 mV. The one area of concern is the solar panel potential when the orbiter is passing through the bowshock region

### Galileo internal electrostatic discharge program

The Galileo spacecraft which will orbit Jupiter in 1988 will encounter a very harsh environment of energetic electrons. These electrons will have sufficient energy to penetrate the spacecraft shielding, consequently depositing charges in the dielectric insulating materials or ungrounded conductors. The resulting electric field could exceed the breakdown strength of the insulating materials, producing discharges. The transients produced from these Internal Electrostatic Discharges (IESD) could, depending on their relative location, be coupled to nearby cables and circuits. These transients could change the state of logic circuits or degrade or even damage spacecraft components, consequently disrupting the operation of subsystems and systems of the Galileo spacecraft during its expected mission life. An extensive testing program was initiated for the purpose of understanding the potential threats associated with these IESD events. Data obtained from these tests were used to define design guidelines

### User requirements and user acceptance of current and next-generation satellite mission and sensor complement, oriented toward the monitoring of water resources

Principal water resources users were surveyed to determine the applicability of remotely sensed data to their present and future requirements. Analysis of responses was used to assess the levels of adequacy of LANDSAT 1 and 2 in fulfilling hydrological functions, and to derive systems specifications for future water resources-oriented remote sensing satellite systems. The analysis indicates that water resources applications for all but the very large users require: (1) resolutions on the order of 15 meters, (2) a number of radiometric levels of the same order as currently used in LANDSAT 1 (64), (3) a number of spectral bands not in excess of those used in LANDSAT 1, and (4) a repetition frequency on the order of 2 weeks. The users had little feel for the value of new sensors (thermal IR, passive and active microwaves). What is needed in this area is to achieve specific demonstrations of the utility of these sensors and submit the results to the users to evince their judgement

### Diffusive limits on the Penrose tiling

In this paper random walks on the Penrose lattice are investigated. Heat
kernel estimates and the invariance principle are shown

### Brayton-cycle radioisotope heat source design study. Phase I - /Conceptual design/ report

Conceptual designs for radioisotope heat source systems to provide 25 kW thermal power to Brayton cycle power conversion system for space application

### Correlation entropy of synaptic input-output dynamics

The responses of synapses in the neocortex show highly stochastic and
nonlinear behavior. The microscopic dynamics underlying this behavior, and its
computational consequences during natural patterns of synaptic input, are not
explained by conventional macroscopic models of deterministic ensemble mean
dynamics. Here, we introduce the correlation entropy of the synaptic
input-output map as a measure of synaptic reliability which explicitly includes
the microscopic dynamics. Applying this to experimental data, we find that
cortical synapses show a low-dimensional chaos driven by the natural input
pattern.Comment: 7 pages, 6 Figures (7 figure files

### On equations over sets of integers

Systems of equations with sets of integers as unknowns are considered. It is
shown that the class of sets representable by unique solutions of equations
using the operations of union and addition S+T=\makeset{m+n}{m \in S, \: n \in
T} and with ultimately periodic constants is exactly the class of
hyper-arithmetical sets. Equations using addition only can represent every
hyper-arithmetical set under a simple encoding. All hyper-arithmetical sets can
also be represented by equations over sets of natural numbers equipped with
union, addition and subtraction S \dotminus T=\makeset{m-n}{m \in S, \: n \in
T, \: m \geqslant n}. Testing whether a given system has a solution is
$\Sigma^1_1$-complete for each model. These results, in particular, settle the
expressive power of the most general types of language equations, as well as
equations over subsets of free groups.Comment: 12 apges, 0 figure

### 3-dimensional Cauchy-Riemann structures and 2nd order ordinary differential equations

The equivalence problem for second order ODEs given modulo point
transformations is solved in full analogy with the equivalence problem of
nondegenerate 3-dimensional CR structures. This approach enables an analog of
the Feffereman metrics to be defined. The conformal class of these (split
signature) metrics is well defined by each point equivalence class of second
order ODEs. Its conformal curvature is interpreted in terms of the basic point
invariants of the corresponding class of ODEs

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