9,647 research outputs found

    Using Financial Incentives and Improving Information to Increase Labour Market Success: A Non-Parametric Evaluation of the 'Want2Work' Programme

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    The `Want2Work´ programme was designed to help individuals back into work. This article uses propensity score matching to evaluate the success of a policy that cannot otherwise be evaluated using standard parametric techniques. Using a range of estimation methods, sub-samples and types of job, the scheme was successful. Our most conservative estimates indicate that participants were 4-7 percentage points more likely to find employment than a control group of non-treated job-seekers. Effects were even stronger for Incapacity Benefit recipients. Moreover, there is little evidence that participants were placed in low quality or temporary jobs

    Biodiversity of Spongosorites coralliophaga (Stephens, 1915) on coral rubble at two contrasting cold-water coral reef settings

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    The authors would like to thank Bill Richardson (Master), the crew of the RRS James Cook, Will Handley and the Holland-I ROV team. We also thank all the specialists in taxonomy that provided important help with identification of species: Professor Paul Tyler (ophiuroids), Dr. Tammy Horton (amphipods), Dr. Graham Oliver (bivalves), Dr. Rob van Soest (sponges), Susan Chambers, Peter Garwood, Sue Hamilton, Raimundo Blanco Pérez (polychaetes). Also we would like to thank Val Johnston (University of Aberdeen) for her contribution to cruise preparations and John Polanski (University of Aberdeen) for his help onboard the RRS James Cook. Special thanks to Dr. Alexios P. Lolas (University of Thessaly, Greece) for all the artwork. Funding for the JC073 cruise was provided by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) UK Ocean Acidification (UKOA) research programme’s Benthic Consortium project (NE/H017305/1 to JMR). JMR acknowledges support from Heriot-Watt University’s Environment and Climate Change theme. GK was funded by a Marine Alliance for Science and Technology for Scotland (MASTS) Ph.D. scholarship.Peer reviewedPublisher PD

    Nitrogen cycling in the Anemonia viridis symbiosis

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    The temperate sea anemone, Anemonia viridis forms an endosymbiosis with dinoflagellate algae, or zooxanthellae. Previous studies of this and other symbioses have shown that zooxanthellae photosynthesis can allow them to be autotrophic with respect to carbon. Under environmental conditions where the anemone can satisfy its carbon requirements autotrophically, excretory nitrogen is also retained. In addition to this, Anemonia viridis is able to take up ammonium from seawater. Ammonium uptake has been observed in all classes of microalgal-invertebrate symbiosis, but has not been demonstrated in non-symbiotic species or aposymbiotic individuals. Ammonium uptake is also known to be linked with photosynthesis, since it only takes place in the light or after a period of exposure to light. Whether ammonium is recycled between the zooxanthellae and host or is conserved by the host remains unresolved. Whatever the mechanism by which ammonium is assimilated, it was not known whether ammonium uptake could support growth. To examine this question, symbiotic anemones were maintained for three months in seawater supplemented with 20muM ammonium and weight change was compared with that of control anemones in unsupplemented seawater. During this experiment, anemones in seawater lost weight whereas those in ammonium-supplemented seawater increased in weight. This provided a preliminary indication that ammonium uptake could support growth

    Yang-Mills theory for bundle gerbes

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    Given a bundle gerbe with connection on an oriented Riemannian manifold of dimension at least equal to 3, we formulate and study the associated Yang-Mills equations. When the Riemannian manifold is compact and oriented, we prove the existence of instanton solutions to the equations and also determine the moduli space of instantons, thus giving a complete analysis in this case. We also discuss duality in this context.Comment: Latex2e, 7 pages, some typos corrected, to appear in J. Phys. A: Math. and Ge

    Evidence for strong currents and turbulence in a deep coral reef groove

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    This article is in Free Access Publication and may be downloaded using the “Download Full Text PDF” link at right. © 1977, by the Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc

    Recognising Stakeholder Conflict and Encouraging Consensus of ‘Science-Based Management’ Approaches for Marine Biodiversity Beyond National Jurisdiction (BBNJ)

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    Areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ) encompass the seabed, subsoil and water column beyond coastal State jurisdiction and marine biodiversity beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ) is rich and varied. From providing sustenance and supporting livelihoods, to absorbing anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions, ABNJ ecosystems are vital to the wellbeing of humankind. However, an enhanced understanding of BBNJ and its significance has not equated to its successful conservation and sustainable use. Negotiations for a new international legally binding instrument for the conservation and sustainable use of BBNJ have scoped applicable principles for a future agreement, including the use of best available science and science-based approaches. But there remains a lack of convergence on what science-based approaches would look like, or how they would be operationalised. In order to negotiate and implement a meaningful BBNJ treaty that can meet conservation and sustainable use objectives, stakeholder perceptions must be identified, and areas of divergence must be overcome. Thisstudy uses Q-methodology to reveal and analyse the diversity of perceptions that exist amongst key stakeholders regarding what it means to operationalise science-based approaches for the conservation and sustainable use of BBNJ. The Q-study features 25 stakeholder interviews and 30 Q-study participants revealing four different perceptions, each of which represent a different interpretation of what science-based management means in the context of BBNJ. Across these perceptions, there were areas of stakeholder consensus (e.g., regarding the benefits of integrative management, the application of precautionary approaches when data are insufficient, and the issuespertaining to the trustworthiness and credibility of science) and areas of stakeholder conflict (e.g., regarding the definition, function and authority of science within current and future BBNJ governance processes). Key implications of this study include the evidencing of fundamental tensions between differing perceptions of the authority of science and between conservation and sustainable use objectives, that may be fueling stakeholder conflict, and the subsequent proposal of integrative and highly participatory management approaches to operationalise science-based management of BBNJ

    Book Reviews

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    Academic drug discovery:Challenges and opportunities

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    There are many different approaches to drug discovery in academia, some of which are based broadly on the industrial model of discovering novel targets and then conducting screening within academic drug discovery centres to identify hit molecules. Here we describe our approach to drug discovery, which makes more efficient use of the capabilities and resources of the different stakeholders. Specifically, we have created a large portfolio of drug projects and conducted small amounts of derisking work to ensure projects are investment ready. In this feature we will describe this model, including its limitations and advantages, since we believe the ideas and concepts will be of interest to other academic institutions and consortia.</p

    Ecological model of extinctions

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    We present numerical results based on a simplified ecological system in evolution, showing features of extinction similar to that claimed for the biosystem on Earth. In the model each species consists of a population in interaction with the others, that reproduces and evolves in time. Each species is simultaneously a predator and a prey in a food chain. Mutations that change the interactions are supposed to occur randomly at a low rate. Extinctions of populations result naturally from the predator-prey dynamics. The model is not pinned in a fitness variable, and natural selection arises from the dynamics.Comment: 16 pages (LaTeX type, RevTeX style), including 6 figures in gif format. To be published in Phys. Rev. E (prob. Dic. 96
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