4,854 research outputs found

    ABC likelihood-freee methods for model choice in Gibbs random fields

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    Gibbs random fields (GRF) are polymorphous statistical models that can be used to analyse different types of dependence, in particular for spatially correlated data. However, when those models are faced with the challenge of selecting a dependence structure from many, the use of standard model choice methods is hampered by the unavailability of the normalising constant in the Gibbs likelihood. In particular, from a Bayesian perspective, the computation of the posterior probabilities of the models under competition requires special likelihood-free simulation techniques like the Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) algorithm that is intensively used in population genetics. We show in this paper how to implement an ABC algorithm geared towards model choice in the general setting of Gibbs random fields, demonstrating in particular that there exists a sufficient statistic across models. The accuracy of the approximation to the posterior probabilities can be further improved by importance sampling on the distribution of the models. The practical aspects of the method are detailed through two applications, the test of an iid Bernoulli model versus a first-order Markov chain, and the choice of a folding structure for two proteins.Comment: 19 pages, 5 figures, to appear in Bayesian Analysi

    Reactive Planar Manipulation with Convex Hybrid MPC

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    This paper presents a reactive controller for planar manipulation tasks that leverages machine learning to achieve real-time performance. The approach is based on a Model Predictive Control (MPC) formulation, where the goal is to find an optimal sequence of robot motions to achieve a desired object motion. Due to the multiple contact modes associated with frictional interactions, the resulting optimization program suffers from combinatorial complexity when tasked with determining the optimal sequence of modes. To overcome this difficulty, we formulate the search for the optimal mode sequences offline, separately from the search for optimal control inputs online. Using tools from machine learning, this leads to a convex hybrid MPC program that can be solved in real-time. We validate our algorithm on a planar manipulation experimental setup where results show that the convex hybrid MPC formulation with learned modes achieves good closed-loop performance on a trajectory tracking problem

    Spectral Efficiency Scaling Laws in Dense Random Wireless Networks with Multiple Receive Antennas

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    This paper considers large random wireless networks where transmit-and-receive node pairs communicate within a certain range while sharing a common spectrum. By modeling the spatial locations of nodes based on stochastic geometry, analytical expressions for the ergodic spectral efficiency of a typical node pair are derived as a function of the channel state information available at a receiver (CSIR) in terms of relevant system parameters: the density of communication links, the number of receive antennas, the path loss exponent, and the operating signal-to-noise ratio. One key finding is that when the receiver only exploits CSIR for the direct link, the sum of spectral efficiencies linearly improves as the density increases, when the number of receive antennas increases as a certain super-linear function of the density. When each receiver exploits CSIR for a set of dominant interfering links in addition to the direct link, the sum of spectral efficiencies linearly increases with both the density and the path loss exponent if the number of antennas is a linear function of the density. This observation demonstrates that having CSIR for dominant interfering links provides a multiplicative gain in the scaling law. It is also shown that this linear scaling holds for direct CSIR when incorporating the effect of the receive antenna correlation, provided that the rank of the spatial correlation matrix scales super-linearly with the density. Simulation results back scaling laws derived from stochastic geometry.Comment: Submitte

    Inter-Industry Wage Differentials and the Gender Wage Gap: Evidence from European Countries

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    This study analyses the interaction between inter-industry wage differentials and the gender wage gap in six European countries using a unique harmonised matched employeremployee data set, the 1995 European Structure of Earnings Survey. Findings show the existence of significant inter-industry wage differentials in all countries for both sexes. While their structure is quite similar for men and women and across countries, their dispersion is significantly larger in countries with decentralised bargaining. Further results indicate that industry effects on the gender wage gap fluctuate sharply across European countries. In particular, our results show that combined industry effects explain 29 per cent of the gender wage gap in Ireland.

    Swelling of phospholipid floating bilayers: the effect of chain length

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    The equilibrium distance between two lipid bilayers stable in bulk water and in proximity of a substrate was investigated. Samples consisted of a homogeneous lipid bilayer, floating near an identical bilayer deposited on the hydrophilic surface of a silicon single crystal. Lipids were saturated di-acyl phosphocholines, with the number of carbon atoms per chain, n, varying from 16 to 20. The average and r.m.s. positions of the floating bilayer were determined by means of neutron specular reflectivity. Samples were prepared at room temperature (i.e. with the lipids in the gel phase) and measurements performed at various temperatures so that the whole region of transition from gel to fluid phase was explored. Data have been interpreted in terms of competition between the interbilayer potential and membrane fluctuations and used to estimate the bending rigidity of the bilayer

    Role of non-ideality for the ion transport in porous media: derivation of the macroscopic equations using upscaling

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    This paper is devoted to the homogenization (or upscaling) of a system of partial differential equations describing the non-ideal transport of a N-component electrolyte in a dilute Newtonian solvent through a rigid porous medium. Realistic non-ideal effects are taken into account by an approach based on the mean spherical approximation (MSA) model which takes into account finite size ions and screening effects. We first consider equilibrium solutions in the absence of external forces. In such a case, the velocity and diffusive fluxes vanish and the equilibrium electrostatic potential is the solution of a variant of Poisson-Boltzmann equation coupled with algebraic equations. Contrary to the ideal case, this nonlinear equation has no monotone structure. However, based on invariant region estimates for Poisson-Boltzmann equation and for small characteristic value of the solute packing fraction, we prove existence of at least one solution. To our knowledge this existence result is new at this level of generality. When the motion is governed by a small static electric field and a small hydrodynamic force, we generalize O'Brien's argument to deduce a linearized model. Our second main result is the rigorous homogenization of these linearized equations and the proof that the effective tensor satisfies Onsager properties, namely is symmetric positive definite. We eventually make numerical comparisons with the ideal case. Our numerical results show that the MSA model confirms qualitatively the conclusions obtained using the ideal model but there are quantitative differences arising that can be important at high charge or high concentrations.Comment: 46 page

    Implementing the GPRA: Examining the Prospects for Performance Budgeting in the Federal Government

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    The Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) is the latest in a series of attempts to introduce performance-based management and budgeting techniques at the federal level in the United States. In the past, these attempts largely failed due to administrative complexities, lack of investment in managerial, accounting, and information systems, and the absence of institutional incentives to promote gains in economic efficiency. Whereas we find the objectives of the GPRA laudable, we question whether this current incarnation of performance budgeting can succeed in transforming the traditional focus of federal budgeting from annual appropriations and obligations to multiyear outputs and outcomes

    Migrations et recherches en Allemagne Fédérale

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    Hettlage Robert, Khim Francois. Migrations et recherches en Allemagne Fédérale. In: Revue européenne des migrations internationales, vol. 2, n°2, Novembre 1986. Amériques, sous la direction de Yves Charbit et Jacqueline Costa-Lascoux. pp. 165-192
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