129 research outputs found


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    Abstract: Epithelial ovarian cancer is a malignancy with high rate of death due to an advanced disease at diagnosis and frequent relapse after chemotherapy. Nowadays, there is a lack of knowledge for clear risk factors and predictive and/or prognostic genetic markers although genomic alterations such as mutations in p53, PTEN, BRCA1/BRCA2, HER2, KRAS and PI3K genes have been associated to this pathology. A genomic variant in the 3' untraslated region of cancer related gene KRAS, is able to disrupt the let-7 miRNA binding site. The SNP, commonly named KRAS-LCS6, determines the substitution of the more abundant T-allele to a G-allele which was observed to increase the KRAS expression and in turn to activate the downstream pathway at higher levels if compared to the T-allele. In this study we assessed the role of the KRAS-LCS6 polymorphism (rs61764370) in 97 early (stages I and II) and 232 advanced (stages III and IV) ovarian cancer patients in order to associate this SNP to any physiopathological characteristic of the patients cohort, including progression free survival and overall survival, with a follow up data longer than ten years. Our data indicate that KRAS-LCS6 polymorphism is not relevant in ovarian cancer, in fact, in our cohort of patients, is not associated to any outcome or physiopathological characteristic

    IGFBP-4 tumor and serum levels are increased across all stages of epithelial ovarian cancer

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>We sought to identify candidate serum biomarkers for the detection and surveillance of EOC. Based on RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis of patient-derived tumors, highly expressed secreted proteins were identified using a bioinformatic approach.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>RNA-Seq was used to quantify papillary serous ovarian cancer transcriptomes. Paired end sequencing of 22 flash frozen tumors was performed. Sequence alignments were processed with the program ELAND, expression levels with ERANGE and then bioinformatically screened for secreted protein signatures. Serum samples from women with benign and malignant pelvic masses and serial samples from women during chemotherapy regimens were measured for IGFBP-4 by ELISA. Student's t Test, ANOVA, and ROC curves were used for statistical analysis.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP-4) was consistently present in the top 7.5% of all expressed genes in all tumor samples. We then screened serum samples to determine if increased tumor expression correlated with serum expression. In an initial discovery set of 21 samples, IGFBP-4 levels were found to be elevated in patients, including those with early stage disease and normal CA125 levels. In a larger and independent validation set (82 controls, 78 cases), IGFBP-4 levels were significantly increased (p < 5 × 10<sup>-5</sup>). IGFBP-4 levels were ~3× greater in women with malignant pelvic masses compared to women with benign masses. ROC sensitivity was 73% at 93% specificity (AUC 0.816). In women receiving chemotherapy, average IGFBP-4 levels were below the ROC-determined threshold and lower in NED patients compared to AWD patients.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>This study, the first to our knowledge to use RNA-Seq for biomarker discovery, identified IGFBP-4 as overexpressed in ovarian cancer patients. Beyond this, these studies identified two additional intriguing findings. First, IGFBP-4 can be elevated in early stage disease without elevated CA125. Second, IGFBP-4 levels are significantly elevated with malignant versus benign disease. These findings provide the rationale for future validation studies.</p

    The disruption of the CCDC6 - PP4 axis induces a BRCAness like phenotype and sensitivity to PARP inhibitors in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma

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    Treatment with PARP inhibitors (PARPi) is primarily effective against high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOC) with BRCA1/2 mutations or other deficiencies in homologous recombination (HR) repair mechanisms. However, resistance to PARPi frequently develops, mostly as a result of BRCA1/2 reversion mutations. The tumour suppressor CCDC6 is involved in HR repair by regulating the PP4c phosphatase activity on γH2AX. In this work, we reported that in ovarian cancer cells, a physical or functional loss of CCDC6 results synthetic lethal with the PARP-inhibitors drugs, by affecting the HR repair. We also unravelled a role for CCDC6 as predictive marker of PARPi sensitivity in ovarian cancer, and the impact of CCDC6 downregulation in overcoming PARPi resistance in these tumours

    Application of RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis: CD151 is an Invasion/Migration target in all stages of epithelial ovarian cancer

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>RNA-Seq allows a theoretically unbiased analysis of both genome-wide transcription levels and mutation status of a tumor. Using this technique we sought to identify novel candidate therapeutic targets expressed in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC).</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Specifically, we sought candidate invasion/migration targets based on expression levels across all tumors, novelty of expression in EOC, and known function. RNA-Seq analysis revealed the high expression of CD151, a transmembrane protein, across all stages of EOC. Expression was confirmed at both the mRNA and protein levels using RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining, respectively.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>In both EOC tumors and normal ovarian surface epithelial cells we demonstrated CD151 to be localized to the membrane and cell-cell junctions in patient-derived and established EOC cell lines. We next evaluated its role in EOC dissemination using two ovarian cancer-derived cell lines with differential levels of CD151 expression. Targeted antibody-mediated and siRNA inhibition or loss of CD151 in SKOV3 and OVCAR5 cell lines effectively inhibited their migration and invasion.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Taken together, these findings provide the first proof-of-principle demonstration for a next generation sequencing approach to identifying candidate therapeutic targets and reveal CD151 to play a role in EOC dissemination.</p

    Platinum sensitivity and DNA repair in a recently established panel of patient-derived ovarian carcinoma xenografts

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    A xenobank of patient-derived (PDX) ovarian tumor samples has been established consisting of tumors with different sensitivity to cisplatin (DDP), from very responsive to resistant. As the DNA repair pathway is an important driver in tumor response to DDP, we analyzed the mRNA expression of 20 genes involved in the nucleotide excision repair, fanconi anemia, homologous recombination, base excision repair, mismatch repair and translesion repair pathways and the methylation patterns of some of these genes. We also investigated the correlation with the response to platinum-based therapy. The mRNA levels of the selected genes were evaluated by Real Time-PCR (RT-PCR) with ad hoc validated primers and gene promoter methylation by pyrosequencing. All the DNA repair genes were variably expressed in all 42 PDX samples analyzed, with no particular histotype-specific pattern of expression. In high-grade serous/endometrioid PDXs, the CDK12 mRNA expression levels positively correlated with the expression of TP53BP1, PALB2, XPF and POLB. High-grade serous/endometrioid PDXs with TP53 mutations had significantly higher levels of POLQ, FANCD2, RAD51 and POLB than high-grade TP53 wild type PDXs. The mRNA levels of CDK12, PALB2 and XPF inversely associated with the in vivo DDP antitumor activity; higher CDK12 mRNA levels were associated with a higher recurrence rate in ovarian patients with low residual tumor. These data support the important role of CDK12 in the response to a platinum based therapy in ovarian patients

    Down-regulation of the Mixed-lineage Dual Leucine Zipper-bearing Kinase by Heat Shock Protein 70 and Its Co-chaperone CHIP

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    Dual leucine zipper-bearing kinase (DLK) is a mixed-lineage kinase family member that acts as an upstream activator of the c-Jun N-terminal kinases. As opposed to other components of this pathway, very little is currently known regarding the mechanisms by which DLK is regulated in mammalian cells. Here we identify the stress-inducible heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) as a negative regulator of DLK expression and activity. Support for this notion derives from data showing that Hsp70 induces the proteasomal degradation of DLK when both proteins are co-expressed in COS-7 cells. Hsp70-mediated degradation occurs with expression of wild-type DLK, which functions as a constitutively activated protein in these cells but not kinase-defective DLK. Interestingly, the Hsp70 co-chaperone CHIP, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, seems to be indispensable for this process since Hsp70 failed to induce DLK degradation in COS-7 cells expressing a CHIP mutant unable to catalyze ubiquitination or in immortalized fibroblasts derived from CHIP knock-out mice. Consistent with these data, we have found that endogenous DLK becomes sensitive to CHIP-dependent proteasomal degradation when it is activated by okadaic acid and that down-regulation of Hsp70 levels with an Hsp70 antisense attenuates this sensitivity. Therefore, our studies suggest that Hsp70 contributes to the regulation of activated DLK by promoting its CHIP-dependent proteasomal degradation

    Simple ultrasound rules to distinguish between benign and malignant adnexal masses before surgery: prospective validation by IOTA group

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    Objectives To prospectively assess the diagnostic performance of simple ultrasound rules to predict benignity/malignancy in an adnexal mass and to test the performance of the risk of malignancy index, two logistic regression models, and subjective assessment of ultrasonic findings by an experienced ultrasound examiner in adnexal masses for which the simple rules yield an inconclusive result

    Imaging in gynecological disease (17): ultrasound features of malignant ovarian yolk sac tumors (endodermal sinus tumors)

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    Objective To describe the clinical and sonographic characteristics of malignant ovarian yolk sac tumors (YSTs). Methods In this retrospective multicenter study, we included 21 patients with a histological diagnosis of ovarian YST and available transvaginal ultrasound images and/or videoclips and/or a detailed ultrasound report. Ten patients identified from the International Results All cases were pure YSTs, except for one that was a mixed tumor (80% YST and 20% embryonal carcinoma). Median age at diagnosis was 25 (interquartile range (IQR), 19.5–30.5) years. Seventy-six percent (16/21) of women had an International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Stage I–II tumor at diagnosis. Fifty-eight percent (11/19) of women felt pain during the ultrasound examination and one presented with ovarian torsion. Median serum α-fetoprotein (S-AFP) level was 4755 (IQR, 1071–25 303) μg/L and median serum CA 125 level was 126 (IQR, 35–227) kU/L. On ultrasound assessment, 95% (20/21) of tumors were unilateral. The median maximum tumor diameter was 157 (IQR, 107–181) mm and the largest solid component was 110 (IQR, 66–159) mm. Tumors were classified as either multilocular-solid (10/21; 48%) or solid (11/21; 52%). Papillary projections were found in 10% (2/21) of cases. Most (20/21; 95%) tumors were well vascularized (color score, 3–4) and none had acoustic shadowing. Malignancy was suspected in all cases, except in the patient with ovarian torsion, who presented a tumor with a color score of 1, which was classified as probably benign. Image and videoclip quality was considered as adequate in 18/21 cases. On review of the images and videoclips, we found that all tumors contained both solid components and cystic spaces, and that 89% (16/18) had irregular, still fine-textured and slightly hyperechoic solid tissue, giving them a characteristic appearance. Conclusion Malignant ovarian YSTs are often detected at an early stage, in young women usually in the second or third decade of life, presenting with pain and markedly elevated S-AFP. On ultrasound, malignant ovarian YSTs are mostly unilateral, large and multilocular-solid or solid, with fine-textured slightly hyperechoic solid tissue and rich vascularization. © 2020 The Authors. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

    Gynecologic cancers in pregnancy: guidelines based on a third international consensus meeting

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    We aimed to provide comprehensive protocols and promote effective management of pregnant women with gynecological cancers. New insights and more experience have been gained since the previous guidelines were published in 2014. Members of the International Network on Cancer, Infertility and Pregnancy (INCIP), in collaboration with other international experts, reviewed existing literature on their respective areas of expertise. Summaries were subsequently merged into a manuscript that served as a basis for discussion during the consensus meeting. Treatment of gynecological cancers during pregnancy is attainable if management is achieved by collaboration of a multidisciplinary team of health care providers. This allows further optimization of maternal treatment, while considering fetal development and providing psychological support and long-term follow-up of the infants. Nonionizing imaging procedures are preferred diagnostic procedures, but limited ionizing imaging methods can be allowed if indispensable for treatment plans. In contrast to other cancers, standard surgery for gynecological cancers often needs to be adapted according to cancer type and gestational age. Most standard regimens of chemotherapy can be administered after 14 weeks gestational age but are not recommended beyond 35 weeks. C-section is recommended for most cervical and vulvar cancers, whereas vaginal delivery is allowed in most ovarian cancers. Breast-feeding should be avoided with ongoing chemotherapeutic, endocrine or targeted treatment. More studies that focus on the long-term toxic effects of gynecologic cancer treatments are needed to provide a full understanding of their fetal impact. In particular, data on targeted therapies that are becoming standard of care in certain gynecological malignancies is still limited. Furthermore, more studies aimed at the definition of the exact prognosis of patients after antenatal cancer treatment are warranted. Participation in existing registries (www.cancerinpregnancy.org) and the creation of national tumor boards with multidisciplinary teams of care providers (supplementary Box S1, available at Annals of Oncology online) is encouraged
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