2,488 research outputs found

    Development of a Pain Management Protocol for a Paediatric Ward in the Gambia, West Africa

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    Despite recent advances in our understanding of paediatric pain and its management, pain continues to be undertreated globally, particularly in children and in low income countries. This article describes the development of a paediatric analgesia and sedation protocol, tailored to the specific setting of the Medical Research Council (MRC) paediatric ward in the Gambia, West Africa. An iterative process was used throughout development, with inputs from the medical literature, local providers, and pain experts, incorporated to ensure a safe, effective, and locally appropriate protocol. We demonstrate that evidence-based published guidelines, can and should be adapted to allow for optimal pain management given the resources and capabilities of specific health care settings. It is hoped that the process and protocol described here, will not only help to improve care on the MRC ward, but serve as an example to others working toward improving pain management in similar health care settings

    Silica-Based Membrane Sorbent for Heavy Metal Sequestration

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    An apparatus providing for metal ion/nitrate entrapment comprises a chemically activated, microfiltration, composite polymer and silica-based membrane including a polyamino acid attached thereto through reaction of a terminal amine group of the polyamino acid with the membrane. A method for preparing such a chemically activated or polyamino acid functionalized membrane includes the steps of permeating the silica-based membrane with a solution of silane and a solvent so as to react methoxy groups of the silane with silanol groups of the membrane to incorporate epoxide groups and attaching a polyamino acid to the membrane by reacting a terminal amine group of the polyamino acid with one of the epoxide groups on the membrane

    Preparing and Regenerating a Composite Polymer and Silica-Based Membrane

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    A method for preparing and regenerating a chemically activated or polyamino acid functionalized membrane includes the steps of permeating the silica-based membrane with a solution of silane and a solvent so as to react methoxy groups of the silane with silanol groups of the membrane to incorporate epoxide groups and attaching a polyamino acid to the membrane by reacting a terminal amine group of the polyamino acid with one of the epoxide groups on the membrane. The membrane is regenerated after metal entrapment by utilizing helix-coil properties of polyamino acids

    Method of Preparing a Composite Polymer and Silica-Based Membrane

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    A method for preparing a chemically activated or polyamino acid functionalized membrane includes the steps of permeating a silica-based membrane with a solution of silane and a solvent so as to react methoxy groups of the silane with silanol groups of the membrane to incorporate epoxide groups and attaching a polyamino acid to the membrane by reacting a terminal amine group of the polyamino acid with one of the epoxide groups on the membrane

    Ultrasound-Guided Greater Auricular Nerve Block as Sole Anesthetic for Ear Surgery

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    A greater auricular nerve (GAN) block was used as the sole anesthetic for facial surgery in an 80-year-old male patient with multiple comorbidities which would have made general anesthesia challenging. The GAN provides sensation to the ear, mastoid process, parotid gland, and angle of the mandible. In addition to anesthesia for operating room surgery, the GAN block can be used for outpatient or emergency department procedures without the need for a separate anesthesia team. Although this nerve block has been performed using landmark-based techniques, the ultrasound-guided version offers several potential advantages. These advantages include increased reliability of the nerve block, as well as prevention of inadvertent vascular puncture or blockade of the phrenic nerve, brachial plexus, or deep cervical plexus. The increasing access to ultrasound technology for medical care providers outside the operating room makes this ultrasound guided block an increasingly viable alternative

    Using Specialist Screening Practitioners (SSPs) to increase uptake of the Bowel Scope (Flexible Sigmoidoscopy) Screening Programme: a study protocol for a feasibility single-stage phase II trial

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    Background: The NHS Bowel Scope Screening (BSS) programme offers men and women aged 55 years a onceonly flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS), a test that can help reduce colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality. However, the benefits of BSS are contingent on uptake. This National Institute for Health Research-funded singlestage phase II trial will test the feasibility of using patient navigation (PN), an intervention that offers support to patients to overcome barriers to healthcare, to increase BSS uptake within a socially deprived area of England. Methods/design: All individuals invited for BSS at South Tyneside NHS Foundation Trust during the 6-month recruitment period will be invited to take part in the study. Consenting participants will be randomised to receive PN or usual care in a 2:1 ratio. PN involves non-attenders receiving a phone call from a Specialist Screening Practitioner (SSP) who will elicit reasons for non-attendance and offer educational, practical, and emotional support as needed. If requested by the patient, another appointment for BSS will then be arranged. We anticipate 30 % of participants will be non-attenders. Using A’Hern single-stage design, with 20 % significance level and 80 % power, at least 35 participants who receive PN need to subsequently attend for PN to be considered worthy of further investigation in a definitive trial. The primary outcome measure will be the number of participants in the PN group who re-book and attend their BSS appointment. A qualitative analysis of the PN transcripts, and interviews with the SSPs, will also be conducted, alongside a quantitative analysis of completed patient-reported experience questionnaires. An economic analysis will calculate the costs of delivering PN. Discussion: This feasibility study will be instrumental in deciding whether to conduct the first definitive trial of PN in BSS in England. If PN is subsequently shown to be cost-effective at increasing uptake of BSS, NHS policies could be modified to implement PN as a standard service. The results will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and at scientific conferences. Trial registration: International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number, ISRCTN1331475

    Consequences of information suppression in ecological and conservation sciences

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    Suppressing expert knowledge can hide environmentally damaging practices and policies from public scrutiny. We surveyed ecologists and conservation scientists from universities, government, and industry across Australia to understand the prevalence and consequences of suppressing science communication. Government (34%) and industry (30%) respondents reported higher rates of undue interference by employers than did university respondents (5%). Internal communications (29%) and media (28%) were curtailed most, followed by journal articles (11%), and presentations (12%). When university and industry researchers avoided public commentary, this was mainly for fear of media misrepresentation, while government employees were most often constrained by senior management and workplace policy. One third of respondents reported personal suffering related to suppression, including job losses and deteriorating mental health. Substantial reforms are needed, including to codes of practice, and governance of environmental assessments and research, so that scientific advice can be reported openly, in a timely manner and free from interference

    Using specialist screening practitioners (SSPs) to increase uptake of bowel scope (flexible sigmoidoscopy) screening: results of a feasibility single-stage phase II randomised trial

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    Objective To determine the feasibility of specialist screening practitioners (SSPs) offering patient navigation (PN) to facilitate uptake of bowel scope screening (BSS) among patients who do not confirm or attend their appointment. Design A single-stage phase II trial. Setting South Tyneside District Hospital, Tyne and Wear, England, UK. Participants Individuals invited for BSS at South Tyneside District Hospital during the 6-month recruitment period were invited to participate in the study. Intervention Consenting individuals were randomly assigned to either the PN intervention or usual care group in a 4:1 ratio. The intervention involved BSS non-attenders receiving a phone call from an SSP to elicit their reasons for non-attendance and offer educational, practical and emotional support as required. If requested by the patient, another BSS appointment was then scheduled. Primary outcome measure The number of non-attenders in the intervention group who were navigated and then rebooked and attended their new BSS appointment. Secondary outcome measures Barriers to BSS attendance, patient-reported outcomes including informed choice and satisfaction with BSS and the PN intervention, reasons for study non-participation, SSPs’ evaluation of the PN process and a cost analysis. Results Of those invited to take part (n=1050), 152 (14.5%) were randomised into the study: PN intervention=109; usual care=43. Most participants attended their BSS appointment (PN: 79.8%; control: 79.1%) leaving 22 eligible for PN: only two were successfully contacted. SSPs were confident in delivering PN, but were concerned that low BSS awareness and information overload may have deterred patients from taking part in the study. Difficulty contacting patients was reported as a burden to their workload. Conclusions PN, as implemented, was not a feasible intervention to increase BSS uptake in South Tyneside. Interventions to increase BSS awareness may be better suited to this population

    Healthcare students’ perceptions about their role, confidence and competence to deliver brief public health interventions and advice

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    Background Public health improvement has long been an important focus for the United Kingdom Department of Health. The Allied Health Professions (AHP) Federation has 84,000 members, such a large number of AHP professionals should play a role in public health initiatives, but it is not clear if they or the AHP students who will be the future healthcare workforce feel themselves equipped to do so. Our aim was to understand the perceptions of AHP students about their role in delivering public health advice. Methods AHP students were recruited in one teaching university from different departments. Participants were final year AHP students who had completed all clinical placements related to their course. All students were emailed an invitation to participate, and those interested were asked to contact the researchers to participate in one of several focus groups. Data were recorded, transcribed, and analysed using framework analysis by two independent researchers. Results Nineteen students were recruited and participated in four focus groups. The main themes produced by the data analysis were: understanding of public health issues, perceptions of their role in this, challenges and opportunities to develop a public health role, and preparation for a public health role. Conclusions AHP students felt that they had a role in public health advice-giving, but barriers to providing this advice included their own lack of confidence and knowledge, time, and the environment of the clinical placement. They considered that there should be more teaching on public health issues, and that these should feature in both the curriculum and on clinical placement

    Environmental influences on Aedes aegypti catches in Biogents Sentinel traps during a Californian "rear and release" program: implications for designing surveillance programs

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    As Aedes aegypti continues to expand its global distribution, the diseases it vectors (dengue, Zika, chikungunya and yellow fever) are of increasing concern. Modern efforts to control this species include "rear and release" strategies where lab-reared mosquitoes are distributed throughout the landscape to replace or suppress invasive populations. These programs require intensive surveillance efforts to monitor their success, and the Biogents Sentinel (BGS) trap is one of the most effective tools for sampling adult Ae. aegypti. BGS trap catches can be highly variable throughout landscapes, so we investigated the potential impacts of environmental factors on adult Ae. aegypti capture rates during a "rear and release" program in California to better understand the relative contributions of true variability in population density across a landscape and trap context. We recorded male and female Ae. aegypti catches from BGS traps, with and without CO2, throughout control sites where no mosquitoes were released and in treatment sites where males infected with Wolbachia were released. BGS trap catches were positively influenced by higher proportions of shade or bushes in the front yard of the premises as well as the presence of potential larval habitats such as subterranean vaults. In contrast, an increase in residential habitat within a 100 m radius of trap locations negatively influenced BGS trap catches. For male Ae. aegypti, increased visual complexity of the trap location positively influenced capture rates, and the presence of yard drains negatively affected catch rates in control sites. Lastly, for BGS traps using CO2, higher catch rates were noted from traps placed greater than one meter from walls or fences for both male and female mosquitoes. These results have important implications for surveillance programs of Ae. aegypti throughout the Californian urban environment including adult monitoring during "rear and release" programs
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