677 research outputs found

    Positioning Pre-service Teacher Beliefs along the Traditional-Reform Continuum: An Examination of Normative Beliefs and Discursive Claims

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    This study examined a typical sample of K-8 pre-service teachers (PTs) enrolled in typical teacher-preparation programs (TPPs) to provide insight about where on the traditionalreform continuum PTs’ beliefs are positioned. To ensure accuracy in results, a sequential explanatory design was utilized in the examination of the PTs’ normative beliefs assessed three times throughout their TPPs (using Likert items and open-ended questions), relationships between other PTs’ and in-service teachers’ (ITs’) beliefs, and alignment between normative beliefs (what PTs believed they should do) and discursive claims about their teaching (what PTs claimed to do). Results of this study – particularly related to beliefs that are not positioned as far along the trajectory toward reform – are intended to assist mathematics educators and PD developers in targeting future instruction to meet PTs and ITs where they are. Beliefs related to “The power of students’ ideas”; “Critical thinking, problem solving, and understanding, justifying, and communicating processes and their connections to resulting answers”; “Relevance”; and “Productive struggle” were identified as being strong-reform, positioning them the farthest along the continuum toward reform. Beliefs related to “Telling students answers”; “Process v. answer”; and “Collaboration” were classified as being mid-to-weak reform, positioning them lower on the continuum. Beliefs related to “Computation” and “Expository teaching” were categorized as being strong-traditional, positioning them closest to the traditional end of the continuum

    Assessing the Impact of Interannual Climate Variability on New York City's Reservoir System

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    New York City's reservoir system supplies about nine million residents with approximately 1.3 billion gallons of water each day. Such dependence on the system requires a thorough understanding of the natural controls of its variability, as well as that of regional streamflow and precipitation. Prior studies suggest that climate variability in the Northeast depends upon large-scale northern hemisphere atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns. In this study, the impact of large-scale climate variability on New York's reservoir system and whether interdecadal climate variations alter the influence of shorter interannual climate modes on water availability is examined. Also of importance is the interaction between these atmospheric oscillations and how these relationships might change during the different climatic regimes. Explored in this study are the influences of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific-North American Oscillation (PNA), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) on precipitation and hydrology in New York City's watershed. The direct impact of the large-scale oscillations on the quantity of water in New York's seven-reservoir system is also investigated. Statistical analysis has been performed on the data for 1951-2004, during which all data sets were available and, separately, for positive and negative PDO phases (1977-97 and 1951-76/1998-2004, respectively). The interactions between hydrological/meteorological factors and the reservoir system levels in the separate phases have also been examined. Statistically significant differences in most interactions have been found between the separate PDO phases. The results of this study indicate that the potential for predicting reservoir behavior exists. Although statistically significant, the relationships are not well enough understood to prescribe using this information for watershed management at this point. However, the study results do warrant further exploration of the relationships between atmospheric/ oceanic oscillations and the reservoir system for practical watershed management applications

    Creating Quality Improvement Culture in Public Health Agencies

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    Objectives. We conducted case studies of 10 agencies that participated in early quality improvement efforts. Methods. The agencies participated in a project conducted by the National Association of County and City Health Officials (2007–2008). Case study participants included health directors and quality improvement team leaders and members. We implemented multiple qualitative analysis processes, including cross-case analysis and logic modeling. We categorized agencies according to the extent to which they had developed a quality improvement culture. Results. Agencies were conducting informal quality improvement projects (n = 4), conducting formal quality improvement projects (n = 3), or creating a quality improvement culture (n = 4). Agencies conducting formal quality improvement and creating a quality improvement culture had leadership support for quality improvement, participated in national quality improvement initiatives, had a greater number of staff trained in quality improvement and quality improvement teams that met regularly with decision-making authority. Agencies conducting informal quality improvement were likely to report that accreditation is the major driver for quality improvement work. Agencies creating a quality improvement culture were more likely to have a history of evidence-based decision-making and use quality improvement to address emerging issues. Conclusions. Our findings support previous research and add the roles of national public health accreditation and emerging issues as factors in agencies’ ability to create and sustain a quality improvement culture

    Report of the Task Force on the Special Educational Needs of Women

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    On January 17, 1972 an ad hoc committee was appointed to evaluate the special educational needs of women within the University of Maine at Orono/Bangor and in the larger community served by this University. This committee was chaired by Dr. Constance Carlson. PROBLEM : The intellectual, social and professional climate of the University does not encourage women students (undergraduate, graduate, CED, and special) to realize their full intellectual, social and professional potential. SOLUTION: The University environment must become a vital catalyst encouraging each woman student to make the most of the educational opportunity and cultural freedom available at Orono/Bangor thereby achieving her unique potential and developing a self-vision of herself as a responsible human being both in personal and in public life

    Regional brain volume reductions relate to facial dysmorphology and neurocognitive function in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

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    Individuals with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure can experience significant deficits in cognitive and psychosocial functioning and alterations in brain structure that persist into adulthood. In this report, data from 99 participants collected across three sites (Los Angeles and San Diego, California, and Cape Town, South Africa) were analyzed to examine relationships between brain structure, neurocognitive function, facial morphology, and maternal reports of quantities of alcohol consumption during the first trimester. Across study sites, we found highly significant volume reductions in the FASD group for all of the brain regions evaluated. After correcting for scan location, age, and total brain volume, these differences remained significant in some regions of the basal ganglia and diencephalon. In alcohol-exposed subjects, we found that smaller palpebral fissures were significantly associated with reduced volumes in the diencephalon bilaterally, that greater dysmorphology of the philtrum predicted smaller volumes in basal ganglia and diencephalic structures, and that lower IQ scores were associated with both smaller basal ganglia volumes and greater facial dysmorphology. In subjects from South Africa, we found a significant negative correlation between intracranial volume and total number of drinks per week in the first trimester. These results corroborate previous reports that prenatal alcohol exposure is particularly toxic to basal ganglia and diencephalic structures. We extend previous findings by illustrating relationships between specific measures of facial dysmorphology and the volumes of particular subcortical structures, and for the first time show that continuous measures of maternal alcohol consumption during the first trimester relates to overall brain volume reduction

    Abnormal Cortical Thickness Alterations in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders and Their Relationships with Facial Dysmorphology

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    Accumulating evidence from structural brain imaging studies on individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) has supported links between prenatal alcohol exposure and brain morphological deficits. Although global and regional volumetric reductions appear relatively robust, the effects of alcohol exposure on cortical thickness and relationships with facial dysmorphology are not yet known. The structural magnetic resonance imaging data from 69 children and adolescents with FASD and 58 nonexposed controls collected from 3 sites were examined using FreeSurfer to detect cortical thickness changes across the entire brain in FASD and their associations with facial dysmorphology. Controlling for brain size, subjects with FASD showed significantly thicker cortices than controls in several frontal, temporal, and parietal regions. Analyses conducted within site further revealed prominent group differences in left inferior frontal cortex within all 3 sites. In addition, increased inferior frontal thickness was significantly correlated with reduced palpebral fissure length. Consistent with previous reports, findings of this study are supportive of regional increases in cortical thickness serving as a biomarker for disrupted brain development in FASD. Furthermore, the significant associations between thickness and dysmorphic measures suggest that the severity of brain anomalies may be reflected by that of the face

    Callosal Thickness Reductions Relate to Facial Dysmorphology in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: CALLOSAL THICKNESS REDUCTIONS IN FASD

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    Structural abnormalities of the corpus callosum (CC), such as reduced size and increased shape variability, have been documented in individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). However, the regional specificity of altered CC structure, which may point to the timing of neurodevelopmental disturbances and/or relate to specific functional impairments, is unclear. Further, associations between facial dysmorphology and callosal structure remain undetermined

    Learning together for and with the Martuwarra Fitzroy River

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    Co-production across scientific and Indigenous knowledge systems has become a cornerstone of research to enhance knowledge, practice, ethics, and foster sustainability transformations. However, the profound differences in world views and the complex and contested histories of nation-state colonisation on Indigenous territories, highlight both opportunities and risks for Indigenous people when engaging with knowledge co-production. This paper investigates the conditions under which knowledge co-production can lead to improved Indigenous adaptive environmental planning and management among remote land-attached Indigenous peoples through a case study with ten Traditional Owner groups in the Martuwarra (Fitzroy River) Catchment in Western Australia’s Kimberley region. The research team built a 3D map of the river and used it, together with an interactive table-top projector, to bring together both scientific and Indigenous spatial knowledge. Participatory influence mapping, aligned with Traditional Owner priorities to achieve cultural governance and management planning goals set out in the Fitzroy River Declaration, investigated power relations. An analytical framework, examining underlying mechanisms of social learning, knowledge promotion and enhancing influence, based on different theories of change, was applied to unpack the immediate outcomes from these activities. The analysis identified that knowledge co-production activities improved the accessibility of the knowledge, the experiences of the knowledge users, strengthened collective identity and partnerships, and strengthened Indigenous-led institutions. The focus on cultural governance and management planning goals in the Fitzroy River Declaration enabled the activities to directly affect key drivers of Indigenous adaptive environmental planning and management—the Indigenous-led institutions. The nation-state arrangements also gave some support to local learning and decision-making through a key Indigenous institution, Martuwarra Fitzroy River Council. Knowledge co-production with remote land-attached Indigenous peoples can improve adaptive environmental planning and management where it fosters learning together, is grounded in the Indigenous-led institutions and addresses their priorities
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