261 research outputs found

    On positivity of parton distributions

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    We discuss the bounds on polarized parton distributions which follow from their definition in terms of cross section asymmetries. We spell out how the bounds obtained in the naive parton model can be derived within perturbative QCD at leading order when all quark and gluon distributions are defined in terms of suitable physical processes. We specify a convenient physical definition for the polarized and unpolarized gluon distributions in terms of Higgs production from gluon fusion. We show that these bounds are modified by subleading corrections, and we determine them up to NLO. We examine the ensuing phenomenological implications, in particular in view of the determination of the polarized gluon distribution.Comment: 20 pages, 8 figures included by epsf, plain tex with harvma

    On the metastability of the Standard Model vacuum

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    If the Higgs mass m_H is as low as suggested by present experimental information, the Standard Model ground state might not be absolutely stable. We present a detailed analysis of the lower bounds on m_H imposed by the requirement that the electroweak vacuum be sufficiently long-lived. We perform a complete one-loop calculation of the tunnelling probability at zero temperature, and we improve it by means of two-loop renormalization-group equations. We find that, for m_H=115 GeV, the Higgs potential develops an instability below the Planck scale for m_t>(166\pm 2) GeV, but the electroweak vacuum is sufficiently long-lived for m_t < (175\pm 2) \GeV.Comment: LaTex 23 pages, 4 eps figures. Misprint in the abstract corrected, reference adde

    Higgs Boson Properties in the Standard Model and its Supersymmetric Extensions

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    We review the realization of the Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism in the electroweak theory and describe the experimental and theoretical constraints on the mass of the single Higgs boson expected in the minimal Standard Model. We also discuss the couplings of this Higgs boson and its possible decay modes as functions of its unknown mass. We then review the structure of the Higgs sector in the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM), noting the importance of loop corrections to the masses of its five physical Higgs bosons. Finally, we discuss some non-minimal models.Comment: To be published in "Search of the Higgs Particle", Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences, Franc

    Complex Networks Unveiling Spatial Patterns in Turbulence

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    Numerical and experimental turbulence simulations are nowadays reaching the size of the so-called big data, thus requiring refined investigative tools for appropriate statistical analyses and data mining. We present a new approach based on the complex network theory, offering a powerful framework to explore complex systems with a huge number of interacting elements. Although interest on complex networks has been increasing in the last years, few recent studies have been applied to turbulence. We propose an investigation starting from a two-point correlation for the kinetic energy of a forced isotropic field numerically solved. Among all the metrics analyzed, the degree centrality is the most significant, suggesting the formation of spatial patterns which coherently move with similar vorticity over the large eddy turnover time scale. Pattern size can be quantified through a newly-introduced parameter (i.e., average physical distance) and varies from small to intermediate scales. The network analysis allows a systematic identification of different spatial regions, providing new insights into the spatial characterization of turbulent flows. Based on present findings, the application to highly inhomogeneous flows seems promising and deserves additional future investigation.Comment: 12 pages, 7 figures, 3 table

    The threshold region for Higgs production in gluon fusion

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    We provide a quantitative determination of the effective partonic kinematics for Higgs production in gluon fusion in terms of the collider energy at the LHC. We use the result to assess, as a function of the Higgs mass, whether the large top mass approximation is adequate and whether Sudakov resummation is advantageous. We argue that our results hold to all perturbative orders. Based on it, we conclude that the full inclusion of finite top mass corrections is likely to be important for accurate phenomenology for a light Higgs with m_H ~ 125 GeV at the LHC with sqrt{s} = 14 TeV.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figures. Refs 9 and 15 added, several small textual improvements. Final version, to be published in Physical Review Letter

    Stability of the electroweak ground state in the Standard Model and its extensions

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    We review the formalism by which the tunnelling probability of an unstable ground state can be computed in quantum field theory, with special reference to the Standard Model of electroweak interactions. We describe in some detail the approximations implicitly adopted in such calculation. Particular attention is devoted to the role of scale invariance, and to the different implications of scale-invariance violations due to quantum effects and possible new degrees of freedom. We show that new interactions characterized by a new energy scale, close to the Planck mass, do not invalidate the main conclusions about the stability of the Standard Model ground state derived in absence of such terms.Comment: 12 pages, 5 figures. To appear in Physics Letters

    Resummation prescriptions and ambiguities in SCET vs. direct QCD: Higgs production as a case study

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    We perform a comparison of soft-gluon resummation in SCET vs. direct QCD (dQCD), using Higgs boson production in gluon fusion as a case study, with the goal of tracing the quantitative impact of each source of difference between the two approaches. We show that saddle-point methods enable a direct quantitative comparison despite the fact that the scale which is resummed in the two approaches is not the same. As a byproduct, we put in one-to-one analytic correspondence various features of either approach: specifically, we show how the SCET method for treating the Landau pole can be implemented in dQCD, and how the resummation of the optimal partonic scale of dQCD can be implemented in SCET. We conclude that the main quantitative difference comes from power-suppressed subleading contributions, which could in fact be freely tuned in either approach, and not really characteristic of either. This conclusion holds for Higgs production in gluon fusion, but it is in fact generic for processes with similar kinematics. For Higgs production, everything else being equal, SCET resummation at NNLL in the Becher-Neubert implementation leads to essentially no enhancement of the NNLO cross-section, unlike dQCD in the standard implementation of Catani et al..Comment: 21 pages, 4 figures; final version, to be published in JHEP. Eq. 2.39 and subsequent discussion added, fig.1 and corresponding discussion added, discussion on sqrt{z} prefactor added on pag.1

    Massive vectors and loop observables: the g−2g-2 case

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    We discuss the use of massive vectors for the interpretation of some recent experimental anomalies, with special attention to the muon g−2g-2. We restrict our discussion to the case where the massive vector is embedded into a spontaneously broken gauge symmetry, so that the predictions are not affected by the choice of an arbitrary energy cut-off. Extended gauge symmetries, however, typically impose strong constraints on the mass of the new vector boson and for the muon g−2g-2 they basically rule out, barring the case of abelian gauge extensions, the explanation of the discrepancy in terms of a single vector extension of the standard model. We finally comment on the use of massive vectors for BB-meson decay and di-photon anomalies.Comment: 25 pages, 1 figure. References added, to appear in JHE