21 research outputs found

    Australian pharmacists' perceptions and practices in travel health

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    Worldwide, pharmacists are playing an increasing role in travel health, although legislation and funding can dictate the nature of this role, which varies from country to country. The aim of this study was to explore the current and potential future practices in travel health for pharmacists in Australia, as well as the perceived barriers, including training needs, for the provision of services. A survey was developed and participation was sought from a representative sample of Australian pharmacists, with descriptive statistics calculated to summarise the frequency of responses. A total of 255 participants, predominantly female (69%), below 50 years (75%) and registered less than 30 years completed the survey. Although over two-thirds (68%) provided travel-related advice in their current practice, the frequency of advice provision was low (less than 2 travellers per week) and limited to responding to travellers questions. Although Australian pharmacists are currently unable to administer travel vaccines and prescription only medications without prescription, they still consider travel health to be an appropriate role and that their clients would seek travel health advice from pharmacies if offered. Currently, key roles for Australian pharmacists are advising travellers who do not seek advice from other practitioners, reinforcing the advice of other health practitioners and referring travellers needing vaccinations and antimalarials. In order to expand these services, the barriers of workload, time, staffing and the need for training in travel health need to be addressed. In summary, the travel health services provided by pharmacies in Australia still have a way to go before they match the services offered by pharmacies in some other countries, however Australian pharmacist are keen to further develop their role in this area

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF).

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    <p>The ICF model <a href="http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001366#pntd.0001366-WorldHealthOrganisation1" target="_blank">[13]</a> presents a social model of health and functioning that is comprised of six inter-related domains: Health Condition, Body Functions and Structures, Activity, Participation, Environmental Factors, and Personal Factors. Health Condition refers to the presence/absence of a disorder or disease. Body Functions and Structure identifies the impact of physical bodily functioning on health. Within this model, health is seen to be not only the absence of a Health Condition, but also the individual's ability to complete daily Activities of necessity and their Participation in important life roles. Health and functioning is influenced by the existence of Environmental Factors (climactic environment, social attitudes, policies, services, etc.) that can be barriers or supports to health and functioning. Personal Factors (poverty, education level, gender, etc.) also influence health and functioning, depending on the environment a person lives within. Health and functioning is seen within this model as being not only an outcome of a health condition, but also of the other five domains that interact. Hence, health and functioning is seen to depend on context (Environment) and Personal Factors as much as the presence of a health condition and impaired body functions and structures. Finally, impairment is seen not only in terms of reduced bodily functions, but also in terms of a person's inability to complete daily activities and/or to participate in important life roles.</p

    Matrix of domains and issues of LF-related disability as identified in the literature.

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    <p>Matrix of domains and issues of LF-related disability as identified in the literature.</p

    Items of generic tools as they relate to domains and issues of LF-related disability.

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    <p>Items of generic tools as they relate to domains and issues of LF-related disability.</p

    Numbers of spectacled flying-foxes (<i>Pteropus conspicillatus</i>) affected by tick paralysis between 1998 and 2010 and population counts of <i>P. conspicillatus</i>.

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    *<p>Affected animals from Tolga scrub, Whiteing Road, and New Powley Road on the Atherton Tableland, North Queensland, Australia; **2006 count is taken from December and includes Lakeside a new camp affected by tick paralysis; <sup></sup>Animalsmovedtonewunknowncamp(Lakeside)sosearcheswereincompletein2006;<sup></sup>Animals moved to new unknown camp (Lakeside) so searches were incomplete in 2006; <sup>$</sup>No details about numbers of dead adult animals available, as too many juvenile animals were in care; number of adult <i>P. conspicillatus</i> given were extrapolated from previous data; <b><sup>#</sup></b>Search for affected animals stopped for 3 weeks because too many juveniles were in care; number of adult and juvenile animals based on seasonal distribution of previous years.</p

    Mortality rates (per 10,000) of spectacled flying-foxes (<i>Pteropus conspicillatus</i>) caused by tick paralysis on the Atherton Tableland, North Queensland, Australia.

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    *<p>Upper mortality estimate is based on fly-out counts, lower number is based on day counts as available; **NA  =  not available; <sup></sup>Animalsmovedtonewunknowncamp(Lakeside)sosearcheswereincompletein2006;<sup></sup>Animals moved to new unknown camp (Lakeside) so searches were incomplete in 2006; <sup>$</sup>No details about numbers of dead adult animals available, as too many juvenile animals were in care; numbers given were extrapolated from previous years.</p

    Production of Th2 cytokines in the duodenal mucosa of hookworm infected individuals.

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    <p>Duodenal biopsies from Trial 1, taken from either the duodenum at week 20 post-infection or from directly adjacent to an adult hookworm attachment site (HW site – determined by endoscopy) at week 21 in the hookworm group only, were cultured for 24 h in tissue culture medium at 37°C with 95% O<sub>2</sub>/5% CO<sub>2</sub>. Cell supernatants were removed and levels of IL-4 (A), IL-5 (B) and IL-13 (C) were determined using a Cytometric Bead Array. Data were analysed by Mann-Whitney U test.</p

    Distribution of spectacled flying-fox camps in the central Wet Tropics region, Atherton Tablelands, North Queensland, Australia.

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    <p>The distribution of rainforest is shown in grey. Enclosed area is the core distribution of <i>Solanum mauritianum</i> based on Queensland herbarium records for the Atherton Tableland (Source: Wikipedia; <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australia" target="_blank">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australia</a>; commons map; and CSIRO, Australia).</p
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