418 research outputs found

    How fast do Jupiters grow? Signatures of the snowline and growth rate in the distribution of gas giant planets

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    We present here observational evidence that the snowline plays a significant role in the formation and evolution of gas giant planets. When considering the population of observed exoplanets, we find a boundary in mass-semimajor axis space that suggests planets are preferentially found beyond the snowline prior to undergoing gap-opening inward migration and associated gas accretion. This is consistent with theoretical models suggesting that sudden changes in opacity -- as would occur at the snowline -- can influence core migration. Furthermore, population synthesis modelling suggests that this boundary implies that gas giant planets accrete ~ 70 % of the inward flowing gas, allowing ~ 30$ % through to the inner disc. This is qualitatively consistent with observations of transition discs suggesting the presence of inner holes, despite there being ongoing gas accretion.Comment: 7 pages, 6 figures, accepted for publication in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Societ

    Introducing a Hybrid Method of Radiative Transfer in Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

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    We present a new method of incorporating radiative transfer into Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). There have been many recent attempts at radiative transfer in SPH (Stamatellos et al 2005, 2005, Mayer et al 2007, Whitehouse and Bate 2006), however these are becoming increasingly complex, with some methods requiring the photosphere to be mapped (which is often of non-trivial geometric shape), and extra conditions to be applied there (matching atmospheres as in Cai et al (2008), or specifying cooling at the photosphere as in Mayer et al (2007)). The method of identifying the photosphere is usually a significant addition to the total simulation runtime, and often requires extra free parameters, the changing of which will affect the final results. Our method is not affected by such concerns, as the photosphere is constructed implicitly by the algorithm without the need for extra free parameters. The algorithm used is a synergy of two current formalisms for radiative effects: a) the polytropic cooling formalism proposed by Stamatellos et al (2007), and b) flux-limited diffusion, used by many authors to simulate radiation transport in the optically thick regime (e.g. Mayer et al 2007). We present several tests of this method: (1) The evolution of a 0.07 solar mass protoplanetary disc around a 0.5 solarmass star (Pickett et al 2003, Mejia et al 2005, Boley et al 2006, Cai et al 2008); (2) The collapse of a non-rotating 1 solar mass molecular cloud (Masunaga & Inutsuka 2000, Stamatellos et al 2007); (3) The thermal relaxation of temperature fluctuations in an static homogeneous sphere (Masunaga et al 1998, Spiegel 1957, Stamatellos et al 2007)Comment: 4 pages, 6 figures, to appear in the proceedings of the Cool Stars 15 conferenc

    Management of Late-Season Bean Leaf Beetles in Iowa Soybeans

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    The bean leaf beetle is an annual pest of soybean in Iowa. Adults feed on aboveground plant parts and are especially fond of soybean pods late in the growing season. Larvae, which are similar in appearance to com rootworm larvae, feed below the soil surface on soybean nodules, but their impact on yield or plant health is not known. In addition to the physical injury that bean leaf beetle adults cause to soybean plants, this insect also transmits bean pod mottle virus-a potentially yield-robbing plant disease that makes proper management of this insect even more critical. This paper focuses on the performance of insecticides in controlling this pest

    Binary companions triggering fragmentation in self-gravitating discs

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    Observations of systems hosting close in (<1<1 AU) giant planets and brown dwarfs (M7M\gtrsim7 MJup_{\rm Jup}) find an excess of binary star companions, indicating that stellar multiplicity may play an important role in their formation. There is now increasing evidence that some of these objects may have formed via fragmentation in gravitationally unstable discs. We present a suite of 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of binary star systems with circumprimary self-gravitating discs, which include a realistic approximation to radiation transport, and extensively explore the companion's orbital parameter space for configurations which may trigger fragmentation. We identify a "sweet spot" where intermediate separation binary companions (100100 AU a400\lesssim a\lesssim400 AU) can cause a marginally stable disc to fragment. The exact range of ideal binary separations is a function of the companion's eccentricity, inclination and mass. Heating is balanced by efficient cooling, and fragmentation occurs inside a spiral mode driven by the companion. Short separation, disc penetrating binary encounters (a100a\lesssim100 AU) are prohibitive to fragmentation, as mass stripping and disc heating quench any instability. This is also true of binary companions with high orbital eccentricities (e0.75e\gtrsim0.75). Wide separation companions (a500a\gtrsim500 AU) have little effect on the disc properties for the setup parameters considered here. The sweet spot found is consistent with the range of binary separations which display an excess of close in giant planets and brown dwarfs. Hence we suggest that fragmentation triggered by a binary companion may contribute to the formation of these substellar objects.Comment: 15 pages, 8 figures, accepted for publication in MNRA

    Stellar Encounters: A Stimulus for Disc Fragmentation?

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    An interaction between a star-disc system and another star will perturb the disc, possibly resulting in a significant modification of the disc structure and its properties. It is still unclear if such an encounter can trigger fragmentation of the disc to form brown dwarfs or gas giant planets. This paper details high resolution Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations investigating the influence of stellar encounters on disc dynamics. Star-star encounters (where the primary has a self-gravitating, marginally stable protostellar disc, and the secondary has no disc) were simulated with various orbital parameters to investigate the resulting disc structure and dynamics. This work is the first of its kind to incorporate realistic radiative transfer techniques to realistically model the resulting thermodynamics. The results suggest that the effect of stellar encounters is to prohibit fragmentation - compressive and shock heating stabilises the disc, and the radiative cooling is insufficient to trigger gravitational instability. The encounter strips the outer regions of the disc (either through tidal tails or by capture of matter to form a disc around the secondary), which triggers a readjustment of the primary disc to a steeper surface density profile (and a flatter Toomre Q profile). The disc around the secondary plays a role in the potential capture of the secondary to form a binary. However, this applies only to orbits that are parabolic - hyperbolic encounters do not form a secondary disc, and are not captured.Comment: 16 figures, 2 tables, accepted for publication in MNRA