276 research outputs found

    Holography Principle and Topology Change in String Theory

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    D-instantons of Type IIB string theory are Ramond-Ramond counterpart of Giddings-Strominger wormholes connecting two asymptotic regions of spacetime. Such wormholes, according to Coleman, might lead to spacetime topology change, third-quantized baby universes and probabilistic determination of fundamental coupling parameters. Utilizing correspondence between AdS5 x M5 Type IIB supergravity and d=4 super Yang-Mills theory, we point out that topology change and sum over topologies not only take place in string theory but also are required for consistency with holography. Nevertheless, the effects of D-instanton wormholes remain completely deterministic, in sharp contrast to Coleman's scenario.Comment: Latex, one figure, 10 pages, v2. references corrected, v3. version to appear in Classical and Quantum Gravit

    Collective Coordinate Quantization of Dirichlet Branes

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    Collective coordinate quantization of Dirichlet branes is discussed. Utilizing Polchinski's combinatoric rule, semiclassical D-brane wave functional is given in proper-time formalism. D-brane equation of motion is then identified with renormalization group equation of defining Dirichlet open string theory. Quantum mechanical size of macroscopically charged D-brane is illustrated and striking difference from ordinary field theory BPS particle is emphasized.Comment: 16 pages, ReVTe

    Exact Answers to Approximate Questions: Noncommutative Dipoles, Open Wilson Lines, and UV-IR Duality

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    In this lecture, I put forward conjectures asserting that, in all noncommutative field theories, (1) open Wilson lines and their descendants constitute a complete set of interpolating operators of `noncommutative dipoles', obeying dipole relation, (2) infrared dynamics of the noncommutative dipoles is dual to ultraviolet dynamics of the elementary noncommutative fields, and (3) open string field theory is a sort of noncommutative field theory, whose open Wilson lines are interpolating operators for closed strings. I substantiate these conjectures by various intuitive arguments and explicit computations of one- and two-loop Feynman diagrammatics.Comment: short lecture at 2001 Les Houches summer schoo

    M(atrix) Theory on the Negative Light-Front

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    M(atrix) theory defines light-front description of M-theory boosted along positive direction of eleventh, M-coordinate. Rank of M(atrix) gauge group is directly related to M-momentum P11=N/R11P_{11} = N / R_{11} or, equivalently, to total number of D0-partons. Alternatively, M-theory may be boosted along opposite direction of M-coordinate, for which the theory consists only of anti-D0 partons. In M(atrix) theory description, we interpret this as analytic continuation of dimension of the gauge group: U(N)U(N)U(-N) \sim U(N), SO(2N)USp(2N)SO(-2N) \sim USp(2N) and USp(2N)SO(2N)USp(-2N) \sim SO(2N). We check these reciprocity relations explicitly for uncompactified, heterotic, and CHL M(atrix) theories as well as effective M(atrix) gauge theories of T5/Z2T_5/Z_2 and T9/Z2T_9/Z_2 compactifications. In all cases, we show that absence of parity, gauge and supersymmetry anomalies require introduction of a twisted sector with negative numbers of matter multiplets. They are interpreted as massless open string excitations connected to anti-D-brane background.Comment: Latex, no figur

    Recent Progress in String Inflationary Cosmology

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    Super--inflation driven by dilaton/moduli kinetic energy is naturally realized in compactified string theory. Discussed are selected topics of recent development in string inflationary cosmology: kinematics of super-inflation, graceful exit triggered by quantum back reaction, and clasical and quantum power spectra of density and metric perturbations.Comment: 5 pages, latex, jkas2.sty file included, typos corrected. Invited talk at 7th Asian-Pacific Regional Meeting of the International Astronomical Union, August 19 - 23, 1996. To be published in the proceedin

    String Theory on Thin Semiconductors: Holographic Realization of Fermi Points and Surfaces

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    I make a novel contact between string theory and degenerate fermion dynamics in thin semiconductors. Utilizing AdS/CFT correspondence in string theory and tunability of coupling parameters in condensed matter systems, I focus on the possibilities testing string theory from tabletop experiments. I first discuss the observation that stability of Fermi surface is classifiable according to K-theory. I then elaborate two concrete realization of Fermi surfaces of zero and two dimensions. Both are realized by complex of D3-branes and D7-branes of relative codimension 6 and 4, respectively. The setup with Fermi point models gauge dynamics of multiply stacked graphenes at half-filling. I show that string theory predicts dynamical generation of mass gap and metal-insulator quantum phase transition at zero temperature. I emphasize that conformally invariant gauge theory dynamics of the setup plays a crucial role, leading to novel conformal phase transition. The setup with Fermi surface is in collaboration with Dongsu Bak and is based on charged black hole and models relativistic Fermi liquid. We find positive evidence for this identification from both equilibrium thermodynamics at or near zero temperature and out-of-equilibrium linear response and transport properties. I argue that fluctuation of black hole horizon provides holographic realization consistent with Fermi liquid for thermodynamics and interesting departures therefrom in transport properties.Comment: Proceedings of "30 Years of Mathematical Methods in High Energy Physics", March 17 - 19, 2008. Also covers talks given at "Strings 2007" June 24-30, 2007 (Madrid, Spain) and "Strong Coupling: From Lattice to AdS/CFT" June 4- 6, 2008 (GGI, Florence, Italy). Charged AdS black hole as Fermi liqud was done in collaboration with Dongsu Ba

    Effective Field Theory for Diffractive QCD Processes

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    An effective field theory describing the QCD diffraction scattering is constructed. The constituent quarks interacting with multiperi- pheral gluons and Goldstone bosons are described by impact- parameter two-dimensional sigma models for the color and the flavor degrees of freedom. The elastic scattering amplitude is then shown to factorize into the hard and the soft pomeron contributions (talk at 5th Blois Workshop on Elastic and Diffractive Scattering Workshop, June 8 - 12, 1993, Providence RI USA)Comment: 8 Page

    Gravitating M(atrix) Q-Balls

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    Q-ball configuration that represents oscillating or spinning closed membrane is constructed via M(atrix) theory. Upon gravitational collapse Q-balls are expected to form Schwarzschild black holes. For quasi-static spherical membrane, we probe spacetime geometry induced by monopole moment via D0-parton scattering off the Q-ball. We find a complete agreement with long distance potential calculated using eleven-dimensional supergravity. Generalizing to heterotic M(atrix) theory, we also construct Q-ball configurations of real projective and disk membranes. The latter Q-ball configuration arises as twisted sector of heterotic M(atrix) theory, hence, are expected to form a charged black hole after gravitational collapse.Comment: Latex, no figure

    Rolling Tachyon with Electric and Magnetic Fields -- T-duality approach -----

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    We study the decay of unstable Dpp-branes when the world-volume gauge field is turned on. We obtain the relevant Dp-brane boundary state with electric and magnetic fields by boosting and rotating the rolling tachyon boundary state of a D(p-1)-brane and then T-dualizing along one of the transverse directions. A simple recipe to turn on the gauge fields in the boundary state is given. We find that the effect of the electric field is to parametrically enhance coupling of closed string oscillation modes along the electric field direction and provide an intuitive understanding of the result in the T-dualized picture. We also analyze the system by using the effective field theory and compare the result with the boundary state approach.Comment: Latex, 6.eps figs, v2:affiliation & acknowledgement adde

    3 Into 2 Doesn't Go: (almost) chiral gauge theory on the lattice

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    Kaplan recently proposed a novel lattice chiral gauge theory in which the bare theory is defined on (2n+1)(2n+1)-dimensions, but the continuum theory emerges in 2n2n-dimensions. We explore whether the resulting theory reproduces all the features of continuum chiral gauge theory in the case of two-dimensional axial Schwinger model. We find that one can arrange for the two-dimensional perturbation expansion to be reproduced successfully. However, the theory fails to reproduce the 2-dimensional fermion nonconservation.Comment: 13 pages (no figures
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