243 research outputs found

    Regulating self-regulating professional associations: What changes in the portuguese context with the law 6/2008?

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    Since there is a professionalization trend (Wilensky, 1964), professional associations are one of the few cases of associations which membership is not in decline, namely according to the World Values Survey data from 2000s. Most professions need to be organized as associations to be able to exert influence over the political power and this influence becomes more important when the State attributes autonomy to these associations in order to regulate the profession and defend the public interest. These professional groups thus acquire a privileged relation with the State (Halliday, 1987). In Portugal, these professional associations are named professional public associations (PPAs), also known as professional Orders. These PPAs are entities of the indirect and autonomous administration of the State (Moreira, 2003). The system of professional regulation in Portugal belongs to the most common pattern of the European Continent, in which the professional associations have the monopoly of professional regulation (Moran and Wood, 2003). The ambiguity of interests defended, private or public, is a characteristic of these associations (Candler, 2000; Moreira, 2003). Therefore, many times, when contributing towards the control of work, of the market, etc., these professional associations are responsible for the collision of public interest with professional interest. In this sense, in our country, some PPAs were involved in polemic situations when they obstructed the adhesion of professionals whose graduation course was not recognized by the PPA, but had been homologated by the Government (Lusa, 2005). We can say that behind a professional association there is always a candidate to a PPA (Moreira, 2003). In this sense, some Portuguese associations entitle themselves association pro-Order, like the Pro-Order Association of Psychologists (Associa莽茫o Pr贸-Ordem dos Psic贸logos) and the Teachers Pro-Order Trade Union (Associa莽茫o Sindical dos Professores Pr贸-ordem). Professional associations can, with effect, also be understood as a strategy of a group to strengthen its status (Selander in Burrage and Torstendahl, 1990). Recently we have observed a substantial increase in the number of professional groups that obtain the status of a PPA following an apparently discretionary criterion by the legislator (Rego in Freire, 2004). For instance some professional groups succeeded to obtain the public status, like economists, while others, even if acting in more public interest sensitive fields, took longer, like psychologists or nutritionists. As a result of the proliferation of PPAs, Law 6/2008 was recently published to regulate its creation and action. The law has established a formal procedure for all PPAs creation but did not bring new features in terms of these associations power, namely on professional regulation. The only new requirement for the creation of a PPA is the making of a previous study, apparently an indicative of the importance of technical and scientific nature of the PPA creation. In short, we may expect that the material resources of professional groups will be important in order to support the legal initiative, besides the change of their lobbying focus, which will be centred on the parliamentary political parties instead of the government. The aim of this paper is to present and analyse the before and after periods of recently developed Portuguese legislation designed to regulate professional associations, taking in account policy makers standpoints, namely parliamentary parties who have voted and enacted the Law 6/2008. This paper is the result of an ongoing project on professional associations' creation and it intends to discuss the impact of the new legal framework on the future strategies of professional groups

    Portugal Case study 1 - Volkswagen Autoeuropa

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    key player in the national context In 1995, Volkswagen moved into Portugal with the opening of an automotive production plant, Volkswagen Autoeuropa. Located in Palmela, in the district of Set煤bal (about 30 km from Lisbon and 10 km from the port of Set煤bal), the plant entered production in May 1995. Autoeuropa still represents the largest foreign investment ever made in Portugal, generating a significant impact on the national and regional economy and estimated to represent 1.6% of the national GDP1. A relevant case study Portuguese researchers have devoted a great deal of attention to the study of Autoeuropa, for example the works by Stoleroff and Casaca (1996), Correia (2000), Costa (2013) and Stoleroff and Chora (2017). Their interest is due, on the one hand, to the company鈥檚 technological innovation, employing the "kaizen" system and "lean production" in a country where industrial development is otherwise weak and Fordism predominates (Correia, 2000); on the other hand, to the exceptional nature of its labour relations system (Costa, 2013), which essentially derives from the group's strategy and contrasts with the pattern in which Portugal is commonly inserted characterised by centralized negotiation and weak worker representation at the company level 鈥 although there is no co-determination in the Portuguese plant.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Portugal Case study 2 - Portuguese bank

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    The Portuguese bank group started out as a voluntary association in 1840 founded to promote savings as a mutualist organisation. The association aim was therefore to deepen the level of social protection as a complement to the public system. Currently, the group holds more than 630,000 members, spans eight organisations and performs in the bank, insurance, health and wellbeing sectors. One might say our case study, the Portuguese bank selected, belongs to the social economy and the entity operates under the status of 鈥榩rivate institution of social solidarity鈥 (institui莽茫o privada de solidariedade social- IPSS) which, according to the Portuguese legal framework, means it acts under the 鈥榩ublic interest鈥 with this status providing tax benefits as well as some prestige. This report refers to the Portuguese bank, which was founded in 1844. The main reason for selecting this case study stems from its collective agreement representing one of the few to mention 鈥榯echnology鈥. The bank sector is both highly qualified and highly technological as already detailed elsewhere (Rego, 2018) and confirmed with the Portuguese bank interviews. The sector counts on the largest trade union in the country, the SBSI, a member of the second largest union confederation, the UGT. Simultaneously, the sector is also very sensitive considering, on the one hand, its close relationship with the recent financial crisis/recession and, on the other hand, the internal board elections that recently became a topic of great media interest.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Digitalization and Public Services: A Labour Perspective

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    This report was commissioned by PSI. In addition to an extensive literature review, the study finds its main sources in interviews and information gathered from trade union representatives from PSI-affiliated organizations in different public service sectors around the world, including in Africa (Burkina Faso, Morocco), Asia (South Korea, Singapore, India), North America (Canada, United States), South America (Argentina, Brazil) and Europe (Denmark, France, Germany, Norway, Spain, and the United Kingdom). The interviewees represent a wide range of public services from central administration and local and regional government to health and care services, hospitals, utilities, police, emergency services and education and cultural services.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Beyond density: Improving European trade unions鈥 representativeness through gender quotas

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    Trade unions鈥 legitimacy is rooted in membership, since unions result from the organization of workers who found they were stronger through a collective voice. Accordingly, union representativeness has been assessed primarily through 鈥榙ensity鈥 鈥 the ratio of union members to the total workforce. We argue that density is crucial but insufficient. First, the decline in trade union membership jeopardizes internal legitimacy; second, unions have developed external legitimacy when acting beyond their members. Inspired by the multifaceted concept of 鈥榩olitical representation鈥, we suggest a fairer approach which adds the composition of unions鈥 boards 鈥 beginning with gender 鈥 to density whenever unions act on behalf of all workers. Specifically, we contend that trade unions willing to take part in the European negotiations should adopt gender quotas on their boards. This approach is likely to stimulate equality in the labour market, while contributing to unions鈥 revitalization, thus fostering the quality of democratic institutions.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Evolu莽茫o do estado de sa煤de em reclusas : estudo dos registos cl铆nicos

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    Disserta莽茫o de mestrado integrado em Psicologia (谩rea de especializa莽茫o em Psicologia da Sa煤de)O ambiente prisional 茅 um caso particular de concentra莽茫o de pessoas numa institui莽茫o, que est谩 associada a situa莽玫es de frustra莽茫o, viol锚ncia, falta de esperan莽a no futuro, perspectivas de novo encarceramento, ruptura de la莽os sociais e familiares e continua莽茫o de consumo de drogas. De acordo com Crofts (1997) e Levy (1999) esta combina莽茫o fomenta elevados comportamentos de risco para a sa煤de, a depend锚ncia de drogas e perturba莽玫es mentais (Observat贸rio Portugu锚s dos Sistemas de Sa煤de, 2003). Se as condi莽玫es de reclus茫o podem propiciar problemas de sa煤de f铆sica e mental, tamb茅m 茅 reconhecido que no momento de reclus茫o estas pessoas podem ter condi莽玫es de sa煤de mais fr谩geis. Quando se trata especialmente da popula莽茫o feminina, a maioria da popula莽茫o reclusa feminina adv茅m de fam铆lias carenciadas, onde as desigualdades sociais sobressaem, reflectindo-se num estado de sa煤de prec谩rio. Isto significa que a pris茫o pode ser uma oportunidade para estas mulheres receberem cuidados de sa煤de adequados. Alguns estudos t锚m procurado caracterizar o estado de sa煤de de mulheres reclusas recorrendo ao relato que elas fazem da sua sa煤de, mas muito raramente se recorreu a dados objectivos de processos cl铆nicos para a descrever. O presente estudo tem como objectivo geral analisar se a sa煤de das reclusas tende a melhorar ou a deteriorar-se com a reclus茫o, recorrendo aos registos cl铆nicos. Para isso fez-se uma caracteriza莽茫o do estado de sa煤de de 100 reclusas de um Estabelecimento Prisional Especial, recorrendo 脿 leitura dos dados cl铆nicos e analisando os dados referentes a duas fases: no 1潞 m锚s de reclus茫o (momento 1 - M1) e no m锚s que antecedeu o estudo (momento 2 鈥 M2). Para a an谩lise da informa莽茫o foi constru铆da uma grelha que incluiu o Registo das avalia莽玫es, a Lista de problemas, o Esquema Terap锚utico e o Hist贸rico da consulta. Os resultados do M1 indicam a presen莽a de comportamentos aditivos, nomeadamente consumo de tabaco e de subst芒ncias il铆citas, evidenciando-se o consumo de coca铆na e can谩bis. Os tratamentos para desintoxica莽茫o de drogas no Estabelecimento Prisional foram utilizados por uma minoria. Os processos indicam uma m茅dia elevada de diagn贸sticos f铆sicos e mentais, registando-se um elevado recurso 脿s terap锚uticas medicamentosas, a consultas e a apresenta莽茫o de queixas m茅dicas. No M2, registou-se uma diminui莽茫o na aflu锚ncia a consultas, nas queixas, nos internamentos e no n煤mero de diagn贸sticos. Em suma, sendo uma popula莽茫o em crescimento, sobre-representada pela car锚ncia no acesso a cuidados m茅dicos adequados e a outros tipos de servi莽os de sa煤de antes da reclus茫o, os dados deste estudo d茫o um contributo para conhecer os problemas de sa煤de existentes nas reclusas em Portugal. Estes dados permitem que durante e depois do encarceramento se possam adoptar estrat茅gias eficazes de preven莽茫o e tratamento.The prison environment is a singular concentration of people in an institution which is associated with frustration, violence, a bleak future as well as ongoing use of drugs, prospects of new incarceration and disruption of social & family ties. According to Crofts (1997) and Levy (1999) this mixture encourages behavior that leads to high health risks, drug dependence and mental disorders. If the conditions of incarceration may provide problems of physical and mental health, it is also recognized that at the time of reclusion these people may have health conditions weaker. In the case especially of the female population, a great part of the female prison population comes from disadvantaged families, where social inequalities emerge, reflected in a precarious health. This means that the prison can be an opportunity for these women to receive adequate health care. Some studies have tried to characterize the health status of women inmates using the account they do for their health, but very rarely resorted to objective data from clinical processes to describe. The present study aims at analyzing the health of prisoners that tends to improve or deteriorate with imprisonment. In a prison, we studied the health of 100 inmates using the reading of clinical data and analyzing data in two phases: in the 1st month of imprisonment (time 1 - M1) and the preceding month of the study (time 2 - M2). To analyze the information we constructed a grid that included a registration of assessments, a list of issues, a therapeutic scheme and the consultation history. The results indicate the M1 data indicate the presence of addictive behaviors, including tobacco and illicit substances, specially cocaine and cannabis. Treatments for drug detoxification in this prison were used by a minority. The cases indicate a high average diagnostic of physical and mental health, which are being monitored and treated, registering a high use of drug therapies, consultation and the exhibition of medical complaints. In M2, there was a decrease in the influx of consultations, complaints, hospitalizations and in the number of diagnostics display. In short, being a growing population over-represented by lack of access to adequate medical care and other health services prior to incarceration, the data from this study provide a contribution for a better understanding of the health problems in Portuguese prisons. These data allow that during and after incarceration it is possible to adopt effective strategies for prevention and treatment

    Medical scientific societies in Portugal

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    Medical scientific societies, just like other scientific associations, are a fairly neglected object in the studies of science. Most of the published research in this area is comprised by historical studies of individual societies, by type or by geographical region. This article aims to fill this gap by presenting original research on contemporary medical societies. It seeks to characterise what are their main activities, how do they function and what relations they establish with other actors in the scientific field. It is focused on Portuguese medical societies but if seeks to draw comparisons with other national contexts whenever there is available information. The data presented was gathered as part of a project intituled SOCSCI Scientific Societies in Contemporary Science, which aims to understand scientific societies in general. This article pays particular attention to three medical societies which were included in a sample of in-depth studies from the project: the Lisbon Society of Medical Sciences, the Portuguese Neurology Society and the Portuguese Neurosciences Society.As sociedades cient铆ficas m茅dicas, tal como as restantes sociedades cient铆ficas, s茫o um objeto relativamente negligenciado nos estudos da ci锚ncia. A maioria da investiga莽茫o publicada nesta 谩rea 茅 composta por estudos hist贸ricos de sociedades individuais, ou por tipo, ou por regi茫o geogr谩fica. Este artigo procura preencher este vazio apresentando investiga莽茫o original sobre sociedades m茅dicas contempor芒neas. Procura compreender quais s茫o as suas principais actividades, como funcionam e que rela莽玫es estabelecem com outros atores no campo cient铆fico. 脡 focado nas sociedades m茅dicas portuguesas mas procura fornecer compara莽玫es com outros contextos nacionais sempre que existir informa莽茫o dispon铆vel. Os dados apresentados foram recolhidos como parte de um projecto intitulado SOCSCI Sociedades cient铆ficas na ci锚ncia contempor芒nea, que procura compreender as associa莽玫es cient铆ficas em geral. Este artigo d谩 particular aten莽茫o a tr锚s sociedades m茅dicas que foram inclu铆das numa amostra de estudos aprofundados do projecto: a Sociedade de Ci锚ncias M茅dicas de Lisboa, a Sociedade Portuguesa de Neurologia e a Sociedade Portuguesa de Neuroci锚ncias

    O impacto da profissionaliza莽茫o nas associa莽玫es de consumidores 鈥 o caso da DECO

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    A literatura cient铆fica sustenta que a ac莽茫o das associa莽玫es de consumidores 茅 enfraquecida por factores inerentes ao consumo, como a sua heterogeneidade, e por factores externos, como a exist锚ncia de outras organiza莽玫es com interesses pr贸ximos. A an谩lise das pr贸prias associa莽玫es de consumidores como um meio para compreender as dificuldades da ac莽茫o colectiva parece ser desprezada. A partir de um estudo de caso, demonstramos que a profissionaliza莽茫o transforma a associa莽茫o e contribui nomeadamente para a perman锚ncia dos dirigentes no poder. Os nossos resultados contribuem assim, n茫o s贸 para compreender os constrangimentos da ac莽茫o colectiva consumidorista, e em particular das associa莽玫es de consumidores do modelo anglo鈥憇ax贸nico dominante, mas tamb茅m para reflectir sobre as consequ锚ncias da profissionaliza莽茫o das associa莽玫es volunt谩rias de um modo geral.Academic literature argues that the work of consumer associations is weakened by factors inherent to consumption, such as its heterogeneity, and by external factors, such as the existence of other organisations with similar interests. Analysis of actual consumer organisations as a means of understanding the difficulties involved in collective action appears to be scorned. On the basis of a case study, this article demonstrates that professionalization transforms associations and specifically contributes towards maintaining their leadership. Our results therefore contribute not only to an understanding of the restrictions on collective consumer action, and in particular the predominantly Anglo-Saxon model of consumer associations, but also to reflections on the consequences of the professionalization of voluntary associations in general.La litt茅rature scientifique soutient que l鈥檃ction des associations de consommateurs est affaiblie par des facteurs inh茅rents 脿 la consommation, comme son h茅t茅rog茅n茅it茅, et par des facteurs externes, comme l鈥檈xistence d鈥檃utres organisations dont les int茅r锚ts sont proches. L鈥檃nalyse des propres associations de consommateurs comme moyen de comprendre les difficult茅s de l鈥檃ction collective semble avoir 茅t茅 n茅glig茅e. 脌 partir d鈥檜ne 茅tude de cas, nous d茅montrons que la professionnalisation transforme l鈥檃ssociation et contribue, notamment, 脿 ce que les dirigeants restent aux pouvoir. D猫s lors, nos r茅sultats contribuent, non seulement 脿 la compr茅hension des contraintes de l鈥檃ction collective de consum茅risme et, en particulier, des associations de consommateurs du mod猫le anglo-saxon dominant, mas aussi 脿 nous pencher sur les cons茅quences de la professionnalisation des associations b茅n茅voles en g茅n茅ral

    Reestrutura莽茫o empresarial em Portugal durante a crise

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    Nos 煤ltimos tempos, o termo 鈥渞eestrutura莽茫o鈥 tem sido muito usado 脿 escala nacional por se associar 脿 d铆vida externa. Mas a express茫o 鈥渞eestrutura莽茫o empresarial鈥, n茫o deveria ser menos pertinente na actualidade pelo impacto que a crise teve nas empresas e, por conseguinte, na vida de uma grande parte dos portugueses. Este texto pretende, em primeiro lugar, chamar a aten莽茫o para a reestrutura莽茫o empresarial como um conceito heur铆stico e um fen贸meno fundamental do dia-a-dia das empresas e dos seus trabalhadores, que disp玫e de resto de fontes de dados regulares, como o Observat贸rio Europeu da Reestrutura莽茫o, aparentemente subaproveitadas. Em segundo lugar, este texto procura contribuir especificamente para a discuss茫o sobre as pol铆ticas de apoio 脿s empresas em dificuldade, considerando neste caso as medidas decorrentes do Memorando para o Entendimento, assinado pelo Governo portugu锚s e a troika e posto em pr谩tica entre 2011-2014.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Est铆mulo ao debate sobre 50 anos de pol铆ticas de emprego e prote莽茫o social em Portugal

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    Resenha do livro de Jorge Caleiras e Renato Miguel do Carmo, intitulado "A articula莽茫o das pol铆ticas de emprego e de prote莽茫o em Portugal: Cinco d茅cadas de movimentos nem sempre virtuosos", que foi publicado em 2022 na cole莽茫o CoLABOR Ebooks. O CoLABOR 茅 uma institui莽茫o de investiga莽茫o que associa grandes empresas, institui莽玫es sociais portuguesas e institui莽玫es acad茅micas, sediada em Lisboa, Portugalinfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio
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