30 research outputs found

    Spatial adaptation procedures on tetrahedral meshes for unsteady aerodynamic flow calculations

    Get PDF
    Spatial adaptation procedures for the accurate and efficient solution of steady and unsteady inviscid flow problems are described. The adaptation procedures were developed and implemented within a three-dimensional, unstructured-grid, upwind-type Euler code. These procedures involve mesh enrichment and mesh coarsening to either add points in high gradient regions of the flow or remove points where they are not needed, respectively, to produce solutions of high spatial accuracy at minimal computational cost. A detailed description of the enrichment and coarsening procedures are presented and comparisons with experimental data for an ONERA M6 wing and an exact solution for a shock-tube problem are presented to provide an assessment of the accuracy and efficiency of the capability. Steady and unsteady results, obtained using spatial adaptation procedures, are shown to be of high spatial accuracy, primarily in that discontinuities such as shock waves are captured very sharply

    Three-dimensional time-marching aeroelastic analyses using an unstructured-grid Euler method

    Get PDF
    Modifications to a three dimensional, implicit, upwind, unstructured-grid Euler code for aeroelastic analysis of complete aircraft configurations are described. The modifications involve the addition of the structural equations of motion for their simultaneous time integration with the governing flow equations. The paper presents a detailed description of the time marching aeroelastic procedure and presents comparisons with experimental data to provide an assessment of the capability. Flutter results are shown for an isolated 45 degree swept-back wing and a supersonic transport configuration with a fuselage, clipped delta wing, and two identical rearward-mounted nacelles. Comparisons between computed and experimental flutter characteristics show good agreement, giving confidence in the accuracy of the aeroelastic capability that was developed

    Spatial adaption procedures on unstructured meshes for accurate unsteady aerodynamic flow computation

    Get PDF
    Spatial adaption procedures for the accurate and efficient solution of steady and unsteady inviscid flow problems are described. The adaption procedures were developed and implemented within a two-dimensional unstructured-grid upwind-type Euler code. These procedures involve mesh enrichment and mesh coarsening to either add points in a high gradient region or the flow or remove points where they are not needed, respectively, to produce solutions of high spatial accuracy at minimal computational costs. A detailed description is given of the enrichment and coarsening procedures and comparisons with alternative results and experimental data are presented to provide an assessment of the accuracy and efficiency of the capability. Steady and unsteady transonic results, obtained using spatial adaption for the NACA 0012 airfoil, are shown to be of high spatial accuracy, primarily in that the shock waves are very sharply captured. The results were obtained with a computational savings of a factor of approximately fifty-three for a steady case and as much as twenty-five for the unsteady cases

    Unstructured-grid methods development for unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analyses

    Get PDF
    The current status of unstructured grid methods development in the Unsteady Aerodynamics Branch at NASA-Langley is described. These methods are being developed for unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analyses. The flow solvers are highlighted which were developed for the solution of the unsteady Euler equations and selected results are given which show various features of the capability. The results demonstrate 2-D and 3-D applications for both steady and unsteady flows. Comparisons are also made with solutions obtained using a structured grid code and with experimental data to determine the accuracy of the unstructured grid methodology. These comparisons show good agreement which thus verifies the accuracy

    Ares Launch Vehicle Transonic Buffet Testing and Analysis Techniques

    Get PDF
    It is necessary to define the launch vehicle buffet loads to ensure that structural components and vehicle subsystems possess adequate strength, stress, and fatigue margins when the vehicle structural dynamic response to buffet forcing functions are considered. In order to obtain these forcing functions, the accepted method is to perform wind-tunnel testing of a rigid model instrumented with hundreds of unsteady pressure transducers designed to measure the buffet environment across the desired frequency range. The buffet wind-tunnel test program for the Ares Crew Launch Vehicle employed 3.5 percent scale rigid models of the Ares I and Ares I-X launch vehicles instrumented with 256 unsteady pressure transducers each. These models were tested at transonic conditions at the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. The ultimate deliverable of the Ares buffet test program are buffet forcing functions (BFFs) derived from integrating the measured fluctuating pressures on the rigid wind-tunnel models. These BFFs are then used as input to a multi-mode structural analysis to determine the vehicle response to buffet and the resulting buffet loads and accelerations. This paper discusses the development of the Ares I and I-X rigid buffet model test programs from the standpoint of model design, instrumentation system design, test implementation, data analysis techniques to yield final products, and presents normalized sectional buffet forcing function root-mean-squared levels

    Analysis of a Transonic Alternating Flow Phenomenon Observed During Ares Crew Launch Vehicle Wind Tunnel Tests

    Get PDF
    A transonic wind tunnel test of the Ares I-X Rigid Buffet Model (RBM) identified a Mach number regime where unusually large buffet loads are present. A subsequent investigation identified the cause of these loads to be an alternating flow phenomenon at the Crew Module-Service Module junction. The conical design of the Ares I-X Crew Module and the cylindrical design of the Service Module exposes the vehicle to unsteady pressure loads due to the sudden transition from separated to attached flow about the cone-cylinder junction with increasing Mach number. For locally transonic conditions at this junction, the flow randomly fluctuates back and forth between a subsonic separated flow and a supersonic attached flow. These fluctuations produce a square-wave like pattern in the pressure time histories which, upon integration result in large amplitude, impulsive buffet loads. Subsequent testing of the Ares I RBM found much lower buffet loads since the evolved Ares I design includes an ogive fairing that covers the Crew Module-Service Module junction, thereby making the vehicle less susceptible to the onset of alternating flow. An analysis of the alternating flow separation and attachment phenomenon indicates that the phenomenon is most severe at low angles of attack and exacerbated by the presence of vehicle protuberances. A launch vehicle may experience either a single or, at most, a few impulsive loads since it is constantly accelerating during ascent rather than dwelling at constant flow conditions in a wind tunnel. A comparison of a wind-tunnel-test-data-derived impulsive load to flight-test-data-derived load indicates a significant over-prediction in the magnitude and duration of the buffet loa

    Assessment of Buffet Forcing Function Development Process Using Unsteady Pressure Sensitive Paint

    Get PDF
    A wind tunnel test was conducted at the Ames Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel to characterize the transonic buffet environment of a generic launch vehicle forebody. The test examined a highly instrumented version of the Coe and Nute Model 11 test article first tested in the 1960s. One of the measurement techniques used during this test was unsteady pressure sensitive paint (uPSP) developed at the Arnold Engineering Development Complex. This optical measurement technique measured fluctuating pressures at over 300,000 locations on the surface of the model. The high spatial density of these measurements provided an opportunity to examine in depth the assumptions underpinning the development of buffet forcing functions (BFFs) used in the development of the Space Launch System vehicle. The comparison of discrete-measurement-based BFFs to BFFs developed by continuous surface pressure integration indicates that the current BFF development approach under predicts low frequency content of the BFFs while over predicting high frequency content. Coherence-based adjustments employed to reduce over prediction in the surface integration of discrete pressure measurements contribute to the inaccuracy of the BFFs and their implementation should be reevaluated

    Analysis of Ares Crew Launch Vehicle Transonic Alternating Flow Phenomenon

    Get PDF
    A transonic wind tunnel test of the Ares I-X Rigid Buffet Model (RBM) identified a Mach number regime where unusually large buffet loads are present. A subsequent investigation identified the cause of these loads to be an alternating flow phenomenon at the Crew Module-Service Module junction. The conical design of the Ares I-X Crew Module and the cylindrical design of the Service Module exposes the vehicle to unsteady pressure loads due to the sudden transition between a subsonic separated and a supersonic attached flow about the cone-cylinder junction as the local flow randomly fluctuates back and forth between the two flow states. These fluctuations produce a square-wave like pattern in the pressure time histories resulting in large amplitude, impulsive buffet loads. Subsequent testing of the Ares I RBM found much lower buffet loads since the evolved Ares I design includes an ogive fairing that covers the Crew Module-Service Module junction, thereby making the vehicle less susceptible to the onset of alternating flow. An analysis of the alternating flow separation and attachment phenomenon indicates that the phenomenon is most severe at low angles of attack and exacerbated by the presence of vehicle protuberances. A launch vehicle may experience either a single or, at most, a few impulsive loads since it is constantly accelerating during ascent rather than dwelling at constant flow conditions in a wind tunnel. A comparison of a windtunnel- test-data-derived impulsive load to flight-test-data-derived load indicates a significant over-prediction in the magnitude and duration of the buffet load. I. Introduction On

    Effect of Surface Pressure Integration Methodology on Launch Vehicle Buffet Forcing Functions

    Get PDF
    The 2014 test of the Space Launch System (SLS) Rigid Buffet Model conducted at the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel employed an extremely high number of unsteady pressure transducers. The high channel count provided an opportunity to examine the effect of transducer placement on the resulting buffet forcing functions (BFFs). Rings of transducers on the forward half of the model were employed to simulate a single-body vehicle. The impact of transducer density, circumferential distribution, and loss of a single transducer on the resulting BFFs were examined. Rings of transducers on the aft half of the SLS model were employed to examine the effect of transducer density and circumferential distribution on BFFs for a multi-body configuration. Transducer placement considerations with respect to model size, facility infrastructure, and data acquisition system capabilities, which affect the integration process, are also discussed

    Overview of the Space Launch System Transonic Buffet Environment Test Program

    Get PDF
    Fluctuating aerodynamic loads are a significant concern for the structural design of a launch vehicle, particularly while traversing the transonic flight environment. At these trajectory conditions, unsteady aerodynamic pressures can excite the vehicle dynamic modes of vibration and result in high structural bending moments and vibratory environments. To ensure that vehicle structural components and subsystems possess adequate strength, stress, and fatigue margins in the presence of buffet and other environments, buffet forcing functions are required to conduct the coupled load analysis of the launch vehicle. The accepted method to obtain these buffet forcing functions is to perform wind-tunnel testing of a rigid model that is heavily instrumented with unsteady pressure transducers designed to measure the buffet environment within the desired frequency range. Two wind-tunnel tests of a 3 percent scale rigid buffet model have been conducted at the Langley Research Center Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) as part of the Space Launch System (SLS) buffet test program. The SLS buffet models have been instrumented with as many as 472 unsteady pressure transducers to resolve the buffet forcing functions of this multi-body configuration through integration of the individual pressure time histories. This paper will discuss test program development, instrumentation, data acquisition, test implementation, data analysis techniques, and several methods explored to mitigate high buffet environment encountered during the test program. Preliminary buffet environments will be presented and compared using normalized sectional buffet forcing function root-meansquared levels along the vehicle centerline
    corecore