435 research outputs found

    A revised lithostratigraphy for the Palaeogene – lower Neogene of the Danish North Sea

    Get PDF
    Intense drilling activity following the discovery of the Siri Field in 1995 has resulted in an improved understanding of the siliciclastic Palaeogene succession in the Danish North Sea sector (Fig. 1). Many of the new wells were drilled in the search for oil reservoirs in sand bodies of Paleocene–Eocene age. The existing lithostratigraphy was based on data from a generation of wells that were drilled with deeper stratigraphic targets, with little or no interest in the overlying Palaeogene sediments, and thus did not adequately consider the significance of the Palaeogene sandstone units in the Danish sector. In order to improve the understanding of the distribution, morphology and age of the Palaeogene sediments, in particular the economically important sandstone bodies, a detailed study of this succession in the Danish North Sea has recently been undertaken. An important aim of the project was to update the lithostratigraphic framework on the basis of the new data. The project was carried out at the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) with participants from the University of Aarhus, DONG E&P and Statoil Norway, and was supported by the Danish Energy Agency. Most scientific results cannot be released until September 2006, but a revised lithostratigraphic scheme may be published prior to that date. Formal definition of new units and revision of the lithostratigraphy are in preparation. All of the widespread Palaeogene mudstone units in the North Sea have previously been formally established in Norwegian or British wells, and no reference sections exist in the Danish sector. As the lithology of a stratigraphic unit may vary slightly from one area to another, Danish reference wells have been identified during the present project, and the lithological descriptions of the formations have been expanded to include the appearance of the units in the Danish sector. Many of the sandstone bodies recently discovered in the Danish sector have a limited spatial distribution and were sourced from other areas than their contemporaneous counterparts in the Norwegian and British sectors. These sandstone bodies are therefore defined as new lithostratigraphic units in the Danish sector, and are assigned Danish type and reference sections. There is a high degree of lithological similarity between the Palaeogene–Neogene mudstone succession from Danish offshore boreholes and that from onshore exposures and boreholes, and some of the mudstone units indeed seem identical. However, in order to acknowledge the traditional distinction between offshore and onshore stratigraphic nomenclature, the two sets of nomenclature are kept separate herein. In recent years oil companies operating in the North Sea have developed various in-house lithostratigraphic charts for the Paleocene–Eocene sand and mudstone successions in the Danish and Norwegian sectors. A number of informal lithostratigraphic units have been adopted and widely used. In the present project, these units have been formally defined and described, maintaining their original names whenever feasible, with the aim of providing an unequivocal nomenclature for the Palaeogene – lower Neogene succession in the Danish sector. It has not been the intention to establish a sequence stratigraphic model for this succession in the North Sea; the reader is referred to the comprehensive works of Michelsen (1993), Neal et al. (1994), Mudge & Bujak (1994, 1996a, b), Michelsen et al. (1995, 1998), Danielsen et al. (1997) and Rasmussen (2004)

    Decreased rhizodeposition, but increased microbial carbon stabilization with soil depth down to 3.6 m

    Get PDF
    Despite the importance of subsoil carbon (C) deposition by deep-rooted crops in mitigating climate change and maintaining soil health, the quantification of root C input and its microbial utilization and stabilization below 1 m depth remains unexplored. We studied C input by three perennial deep-rooted plants (lucerne, kernza, and rosinweed) grown in a unique 4-m deep RootTower facility. 13C multiple pulse labeling was applied to trace C flows in roots, rhizodeposition, and soil as well as 13C incorporation into microbial groups by phospholipid fatty acids and the long-term stabilization of microbial residues by amino sugars. The ratio of rhizodeposited 13C in the PLFA and amino sugar pools was used to compare the relative microbial stability of rhizodeposited C across depths and plant species. Belowground C allocation between roots, rhizodeposits, and living and dead microorganisms indicated depth dependent plant investment. Rhizodeposition as a fraction of the total belowground C input declined from the topsoil (0–25 cm) to the deepest layer (360 cm), i.e., from 35%, 45%, and 36%–8.0%, 2.5%, and 2.7% for lucerne, kernza, and rosinweed, respectively, where lucerne had greater C input than the other species between 340 and 360 cm. The relative microbial stabilization of rhizodeposits in the subsoil across all species showed a dominance of recently assimilated C in microbial necromass, thus indicating a higher microbial stabilization of rhizodeposited C with depth. In conclusion, we traced photosynthates down to 3.6 m soil depth and showed that even relatively small C amounts allocated to deep soil layers will become microbially stabilized. Thus, deep-rooted crops, in particular lucerne are important for stabilization and storage of C over long time scales in deep soil

    Use of the new World Health Organization child growth standards to describe longitudinal growth of breastfed rural Bangladeshi infants and young children.

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND: Although the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) reference has been widely used, in 2006 the World Health Organization (WHO) released new standards for assessing growth of infants and children worldwide. OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare the growth of breastfed rural Bangladeshi infants and young children based on the new WHO child growth standards and the NCHS reference. METHODS: We followed 1343 children in the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Intervention in Matlab (MINIMat) study from birth to 24 months of age. Weights and lengths of the children were measured monthly during infancy and quarterly in the second year of life. Anthropometric indices were calculated using both WHO standards and the NCHS reference. The growth pattern and estimates of undernutrition based on the WHO standards and the NCHS reference were compared. RESULTS: The mean birthweight was 2697 +/- 401 g, with 30% weighing <2500 g. The growth pattern of the MINIMat children more closely tracked the WHO standards than it did the NCHS reference. The rates of stunting based on the WHO standards were higher than the rates based on the NCHS reference throughout the first 24 months. The rates of underweight and wasting based on the WHO standards were significantly different from those based on the NCHS reference. CONCLUSIONS: This comparison confirms that use of the NCHS reference misidentifies undernutrition and the timing of growth faltering in infants and young children, which was a key rationale for constructing the new WHO standards. The new WHO child growth standards provide a benchmark for assessing the growth of breastfed infants and children

    Household food security is associated with growth of infants and young children in rural Bangladesh.

    Get PDF
    OBJECTIVE: Despite a strong relationship between household food security and the health and nutritional status of adults and older children, the association of household food security with the growth of infants and young children has not been adequately studied, particularly in developing countries. We examined the association between household food security and subsequent growth of infants and young children in rural Bangladesh. DESIGN: We followed 1343 children from birth to 24 months of age who were born in the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Intervention in Matlab (MINIMat) study in rural Bangladesh. A food security scale was created from data collected on household food security from the mothers during pregnancy. Data on weight and length were collected monthly in the first year and quarterly in the second year of life. Anthropometric indices were calculated relative to the 2006 WHO child growth standards. Growth trajectories were modelled using multilevel models for change controlling for possible confounders. RESULTS: Household food security was associated (P < 0.05) with greater subsequent weight and length gain in this cohort. Attained weight, length and anthropometric indices from birth to 24 months were higher (P < 0.001) among those who were in food-secure households. Proportions of underweight and stunting were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in food-secure households. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that household food security is a determinant of child growth in rural Bangladesh, and that it may be necessary to ensure food security of these poor rural households to prevent highly prevalent undernutrition in this population and in similar settings elsewhere in the world

    Appropriate infant feeding practices result in better growth of infants and young children in rural Bangladesh.

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization and the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund recommend a global strategy for feeding infants and young children for proper nutrition and health. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effects of following current infant feeding recommendations on the growth of infants and young children in rural Bangladesh. DESIGN: The prospective cohort study involved 1343 infants with monthly measurements on infant feeding practices (IFPs) and anthropometry at 17 occasions from birth to 24 mo of age to assess the main outcomes of weight, length, anthropometric indexes, and undernutrition. We created infant feeding scales relative to the infant feeding recommendations and modeled growth trajectories with the use of multilevel models for change. RESULTS: Mean (+/-SD) birth weight was 2697 +/- 401 g; 30% weighed < 2500 g. Mean body weight at 12 and 24 mo was 7.9 +/- 1.1 kg and 9.7 +/- 1.3 kg, respectively. More appropriate IFPs were associated (P < 0.001) with greater gain in weight and length during infancy. Prior IFPs were also positively associated (P < 0.005) with subsequent growth in weight during infancy. Children who were in the 75th percentile of the infant feeding scales had greater (P < 0.05) attained weight and weight-for-age z scores and lower proportions of underweight compared with children who were in the 25th percentile of these scales. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide strong evidence for the positive effects of following the current infant feeding recommendations on growth of infants and young children. Intervention programs should strive to improve conditions for enhancing current infant feeding recommendations, particularly in low-income countries

    Bone marrow-derived and peritoneal macrophages have different inflammatory response to oxLDL and M1/M2 marker expression:implications for atherosclerosis research

    Get PDF
    Macrophages are heterogeneous and can polarize into specific subsets, e.g. pro-inflammatory M1-like and re-modelling M2-like macrophages. To determine if peritoneal macrophages (PEMs) or bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) resembled aortic macrophages from ApoE−/− mice, their M1/M2 phenotype, inflammatory status, and lipid metabolism signatures were compared. oxLDL accumulation was similar in PEMs and BMDMs. On protein expression level, BMDMs showed an M2-like CD206(high)CD11c(low) profile, while cholesterol loading led to enhanced CD11c expression and reduced MCP-1 secretion. In contrast, PEMs expressed low levels of CD206 and CD11c, and responded to cholesterol loading by increasing CD11c expression and MCP-1 secretion. mRNA expression of M1/M2 markers was higher in PEMS than BMDMs, while lipid metabolism genes were similarly expressed. Whole aorta flow cytometry showed an accumulation of M2-like CD206(high)CD11c(low) macrophages in advanced versus early atherosclerotic disease in ApoE−/− mice. In isolated lesions, mRNA levels of the M2 markers Socs2, CD206, Retnla, and IL4 were downregulated with increasing disease severity. Likewise, mRNA expression of lipid metabolism genes (SREBP2, ACSL1, SRB1, DGAT1, and cpt1a) was decreased in advanced versus early lesions. In conclusion, PEMs and BMDMs are phenotypically distinct and differ from macrophages in lesions with respect to expression of M1/M2 markers and lipid metabolism genes

    Structure-revealing data fusion

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND: Analysis of data from multiple sources has the potential to enhance knowledge discovery by capturing underlying structures, which are, otherwise, difficult to extract. Fusing data from multiple sources has already proved useful in many applications in social network analysis, signal processing and bioinformatics. However, data fusion is challenging since data from multiple sources are often (i) heterogeneous (i.e., in the form of higher-order tensors and matrices), (ii) incomplete, and (iii) have both shared and unshared components. In order to address these challenges, in this paper, we introduce a novel unsupervised data fusion model based on joint factorization of matrices and higher-order tensors. RESULTS: While the traditional formulation of coupled matrix and tensor factorizations modeling only shared factors fails to capture the underlying structures in the presence of both shared and unshared factors, the proposed data fusion model has the potential to automatically reveal shared and unshared components through modeling constraints. Using numerical experiments, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in terms of identifying shared and unshared components. Furthermore, we measure a set of mixtures with known chemical composition using both LC-MS (Liquid Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry) and NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) and demonstrate that the structure-revealing data fusion model can (i) successfully capture the chemicals in the mixtures and extract the relative concentrations of the chemicals accurately, (ii) provide promising results in terms of identifying shared and unshared chemicals, and (iii) reveal the relevant patterns in LC-MS by coupling with the diffusion NMR data. CONCLUSIONS: We have proposed a structure-revealing data fusion model that can jointly analyze heterogeneous, incomplete data sets with shared and unshared components and demonstrated its promising performance as well as potential limitations on both simulated and real data. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2105-15-239) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users
    corecore