125 research outputs found

    The Education of Real Estate Salespeople and the Value of the Firm

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    In order to protect the public, most states require salespeople and brokers to meet specific licensing requirements, typically in the form of classroom instruction and/or successful completion of an examination. Frequently, however, many real estate brokers require their sales staff to undertake education that exceeds these minimum requirements. In this study, we derive a theoretical model that shows how optimally-timed, firm provided education that exceeds legal minimums can increase staff productivity, reduce litigation risks and perhaps raise and/or maximize the expected value of the firm.

    Listing Specialization and Residential Real Estate Licensee

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    Earlier research has found that specialization by real estate agents creates economies of scope for real estate firms. So far, however, no research has addressed this issue at the agent level. The question this research seeks to answer is whether specialization in one side of the real estate transaction increases agent income. The most important finding is that specialization has an asymmetric impact on earnings. Specializing in listings positively enhances agent income. In contrast, specialization on the selling side has an adverse affect on agent income. The implications of these findings for the consumer and real estate industry are also examined.

    Measuring the Efficiency of Residential Real Estate Brokerage Firms

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    This article measures overall, allocative, technical, pure technical and scale efficiency levels for a sample of residential real estate brokerage firms using data envelopment analysis, a linear-programming technique. The results suggest that real estate brokerage firms operate inefficiently. Inefficiencies are primarily a function of sub-optimal input allocations and the failure to operate at constant returns to scale rather than from poor input utilization. Regression analysis is employed to determine which firm and/or market characteristics affect efficiency levels. The results show that increasing firm size increases efficiency while choosing to franchise, adding an additional multiple listing service and increasing operating leverage decreases firm performance.

    ANALISIS PENGARUH INFLASI DAN PRODUK DOMESTIK REGIONAL BRUTO (PDRB) TERHADAP PENDAPATAN ASLI DAERAH DI KOTA MANADO

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    ABSTRAKPembangunan daerah sebagai bagian integral dari pembangunan nasional. Ketergantungan dana pemerintah daerah pada pemerintah pusat mewujudkan juga keterbatasan kemampuan pemerintah mengakumulasi Pendapatan Asli Daerah (PAD). Untuk meningkatkan pelaksanaan pembangunan dana pemberian pelayanan masyarakat serta peningkatan pertumbuhan ekonomi di daerah diperlukan penyediaan sumber-sumber dan pendapatan asli daerah yang hasilnya memadai. Inflasi merupakan salah satu indikator ekonomi penting yang dapat memberikan informasi mengenai perkembangan harga barang dan jasa yang dibayar oleh konsumen. Pendapatan Asli Daerah (PAD) Kota Manado tiap tahunnya mengalami peningkatan seiring dengan meningkatnya PDRB yang disertai dengan fluktuasi Inflasi akibat pertumbuhan ekonomi yang terjadi di Kota Manado. Penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh inflasi dan PDRB terhadap Pendapatan Asli di Kota Manado. Data yang digunakan adalah data sekunder dimana metode analisis regresi menjadi alat analisis yang digunakan. Hasil penelitian, PDRB dan inflasi mempengaruhi Pendapatan Asli Daerah Kota Manado. kata kunci : PDRB, Inflasi, PA

    Exercise Training Prevents the Perivascular Adipose Tissue-induced Aortic Dysfunction with Metabolic Syndrome

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    The aim of the study was to determine the effects of exercise training on improving the thoracic perivascularadipose tissue (tPVAT) phenotype (inflammation, oxidative stress, and proteasome function) in metabolic syn-drome and its subsequent actions on aortic function.Methods:Lean and obese (model of metabolic syndrome) Zucker rats (n=8/group) underwent 8-weeks ofcontrol conditions or treadmill exercise (70% of max speed, 1 h/day, 5 days/week). At the end of the inter-vention, the tPVAT was removed and conditioned media was made. The cleaned aorta was attached to a forcetransducer to assess endothelium-dependent and independent dilation in the presence or absence of tPVAT-conditioned media. tPVAT gene expression, inflammatory /oxidative phenotype, and proteasome function wereassessed.Results:The mainfindings were that Ex induced: (1) a beige-like, anti-inflammatory tPVAT phenotype; (2) agreater abundance of•NO in tPVAT; (3) a reduction in tPVAT oxidant production; and (4) an improved tPVATproteasome function. Regarding aortic function, endothelium-dependent dilation was greater in exercised leanand obese groups vs. controls (p \u3c 0.05). Lean control tPVAT improved aortic relaxation, whereas obese controltPVAT decreased aortic relaxation. In contrast, the obese Ex-tPVAT increased aortic dilation, whereas the leanEx-tPVAT did not affect aortic dilation.Conclusion:Overall, exercise had the most dramatic impact on the obese tPVAT reflecting a change towards anenvironment with less oxidant load, less inflammation and improved proteasome function. Such beneficialchanges to the tPVAT micro-environment with exercise likely played a significant role in mediating the im-provement in aortic function in metabolic syndrome following 8 weeks of exercise

    Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of Lyman Alpha Emission at z=4.4

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    We present the highest redshift detections of resolved Lyman alpha emission, using Hubble Space Telescope/ACS F658N narrowband-imaging data taken in parallel with the Wide Field Camera 3 Early Release Science program in the GOODS CDF-S. We detect Lyman alpha emission from three spectroscopically confirmed z = 4.4 Lyman alpha emitting galaxies (LAEs), more than doubling the sample of LAEs with resolved Lyman alpha emission. Comparing the light distribution between the rest-frame ultraviolet continuum and narrowband images, we investigate the escape of Lyman alpha photons at high redshift. While our data do not support a positional offset between the Lyman alpha and rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) continuum emission, the half-light radii in two out of the three galaxies are significantly larger in Lyman alpha than in the rest-frame UV continuum. This result is confirmed when comparing object sizes in a stack of all objects in both bands. Additionally, the narrowband flux detected with HST is significantly less than observed in similar filters from the ground. These results together imply that the Lyman alpha emission is not strictly confined to its indigenous star-forming regions. Rather, the Lyman alpha emission is more extended, with the missing HST flux likely existing in a diffuse outer halo. This suggests that the radiative transfer of Lyman alpha photons in high-redshift LAEs is complicated, with the interstellar-medium geometry and/or outflows playing a significant role in galaxies at these redshifts.Comment: Submitted to the Astrophysical Journal. 11 pages, 10 figure

    The Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 Early Release Science data: Panchromatic Faint Object Counts for 0.2-2 microns wavelength

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    We describe the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) Early Release Science (ERS) observations in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) South field. The new WFC3 ERS data provide calibrated, drizzled mosaics in the UV filters F225W, F275W, and F336W, as well as in the near-IR filters F098M (Ys), F125W (J), and F160W (H) with 1-2 HST orbits per filter. Together with the existing HST Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) GOODS-South mosaics in the BViz filters, these panchromatic 10-band ERS data cover 40-50 square arcmin at 0.2-1.7 {\mu}m in wavelength at 0.07-0.15" FWHM resolution and 0.090" Multidrizzled pixels to depths of AB\simeq 26.0-27.0 mag (5-{\sigma}) for point sources, and AB\simeq 25.5-26.5 mag for compact galaxies. In this paper, we describe: a) the scientific rationale, and the data taking plus reduction procedures of the panchromatic 10-band ERS mosaics; b) the procedure of generating object catalogs across the 10 different ERS filters, and the specific star-galaxy separation techniques used; and c) the reliability and completeness of the object catalogs from the WFC3 ERS mosaics. The excellent 0.07-0.15" FWHM resolution of HST/WFC3 and ACS makes star- galaxy separation straightforward over a factor of 10 in wavelength to AB\simeq 25-26 mag from the UV to the near-IR, respectively.Comment: 51 pages, 71 figures Accepted to ApJS 2011.01.2

    Combining genomic and epidemiological data to compare the transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 variants Alpha and Iota.

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    SARS-CoV-2 variants shaped the second year of the COVID-19 pandemic and the discourse around effective control measures. Evaluating the threat posed by a new variant is essential for adapting response efforts when community transmission is detected. In this study, we compare the dynamics of two variants, Alpha and Iota, by integrating genomic surveillance data to estimate the effective reproduction number (Rt) of the variants. We use Connecticut, United States, in which Alpha and Iota co-circulated in 2021. We find that the Rt of these variants were up to 50% larger than that of other variants. We then use phylogeography to show that while both variants were introduced into Connecticut at comparable frequencies, clades that resulted from introductions of Alpha were larger than those resulting from Iota introductions. By monitoring the dynamics of individual variants throughout our study period, we demonstrate the importance of routine surveillance in the response to COVID-19

    Genomic, Pathway Network, and Immunologic Features Distinguishing Squamous Carcinomas

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    This integrated, multiplatform PanCancer Atlas study co-mapped and identified distinguishing molecular features of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) from five sites associated with smokin
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