131 research outputs found

    SOURCES AND DISTRIBUTION OF MICROPLASTICS IN THE UNITED ARAB EMIRATES

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    Microplastics (plastic pieces size) are an emerging environmental contaminant that is ubiquitously present in terrestrial, aquatic and aerial environments. United Arab Emirates (UAE) is categorized among the highest domestic waste producing countries (on per capita basis) in the world. A large portion of waste ends up in the environment and contains macro-, meso- and microplastics. No comprehensive study has been carried out in the UAE to investigate the abundance, sources, distribution and impact of microplastics on its environment. Therefore, a comprehensive study to analyze the sources and distribution of microplastics in the UAE was urgently needed. The objective of the current research work was to explore the classical sources of microplastics (cosmetics, tire, road wear) and to find out potentially new or non-classical sources of microplastics found in UAE environment. The three-year (2018-2020) trends of microplastics usage in cosmetic products in the United Arab Emirates markets was explored. The micro-tire concentration in hot arid environment and abrasion pattern of old tires was investigated. As new or non-classical sources of microplastics were found plastic abraded from plastic cutting boards, wear material from road speed bumps, and loosened particles from artificial turfs. The microplastic origin from these sources and their presence in different environmental matrices was investigated. In case of plastic cutting boards, microplastic contamination load in food cut on these cutting boards was quantified. The physical changes in microplastics structure during cooking process was also investigated for microplastics abraded from plastic cutting boards into food. Additionally, the distribution of microplastic in soil, in the sediments of wadis, in road dust, and in run-off water was studied in Al Ain City and environs to have a better understanding of the dispersal of microplastics in a typical hot arid region with an absence of a riverine system connecting to the sea. The sludge of a wastewater plant in the Abu Dhabi Emirate was analyzed for microplastic to have a better knowledge of the pathways the microplastic takes in artificial distribution and collection systems. Lastly, the transfer of artificial plastic microbeads from a lower trophic level towards a higher trophic level was investigated by feeding Moina (Moina parapura) to red tilapia (Oreochromis aureus x Oreochromis mossambicus)

    Optimisation of the surfboard fin shape using computational fluid dynamics and genetic algorithms

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    During the sport of wave surfing, the fins on a surfboard play a major role in the overall performance of the surfer. This article presents the optimisation of a surfboard fin shape, using coupled genetic algorithms with the FLUENT® solver, aiming at the maximisation of the lift per drag ratio. The design-variable vector includes six components namely the chord length, the depth and the sweep angle of the fin as well as the maximum camber, the maximum camber position and the thickness of the hydrofoil (the four-digit NACA parametrization). The Latin hypercube sampling technique is utilised to explore the design space, resulting in 42 different fin designs. Fin and control volume models are created (using CATIA® V5) and meshed (unstructured using ANSYS® Workbench). Steady-state computations were performed using the FLUENT SST k−ω (shear stress transport k−ω) turbulence model at the velocity of 10 m/s and 10° angle of attack. Using the obtained lift and drag values, a response surface based model was constructed with the aim to maximise the lift-to-drag ratio. The optimisation problem was solved using the genetic algorithm provided by the MATLAB® optimisation toolbox and the response surface based model was iteratively improved. The resultant optimal fin design is compared with the experimental data for the fin demonstrating an increase in lift-to-drag ratio by approximately 62% for the given angle of attack of 10°

    Computational investigations into heat transfer over a double wedge in hypersonic flows

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    Recently developed OpenFOAM application hy2FOAM is employed to predict the aerodynamic heat transfer numerically and compared with the experimental data from the University of Illinois. Mach 7 nitrogen flow at 2.1 MJ/kg stagnation enthalpy, and Mach 7 nitrogen and air flows at 8 MJ/kg stagnation enthalpy over a double wedge geometry have been reproduced numerically assuming chemical and thermal non-equilibrium. Good agreement of mean heat transfer profiles has been observed, although none of the simulations achieved a steady-state. The reattachment heat transfer peak in the high enthalpy air case showed an improved agreement with the experimental data, which is due to the non-equilibrium in the flow field

    Improving Productivity of Road Surfacing operations with the help of Lean and Discrete Event Simulation techniques; a UK case study

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    Road surfacing is an important module in Highways Development and Maintenance sector. The resurfacing and rehabilitation of road pavements has become a costly requirement due to large number of private and commercial vehicles using the roads that cause pavements to disintegrate rapidly. The roadworks incur not only direct work costs, but also indirect costs from factors such as congestion, motor accidents, traffic disturbance and pollution. Maintenance activities on the roads usually cause delays and queuing. There is obviously a need for quick and cost effective maintenance that minimizes the occurrences and duration of these disruptions. This research investigates the role of Discrete Event Simulation (DES) to enhance the productivity of the delivery of road surfacing operations through achieving higher production rates and minimum road closure times

    Enhancing aircraft safety through advanced engine health monitoring with long short-term memory

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    Predictive maintenance holds a crucial role in various industries such as the automotive, aviation and factory automation industries when it comes to expensive engine upkeep. Predicting engine maintenance intervals is vital for devising effective business management strategies, enhancing occupational safety and optimising efficiency. To achieve predictive maintenance, engine sensor data are harnessed to assess the wear and tear of engines. In this research, a Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) architecture was employed to forecast the remaining lifespan of aircraft engines. The LSTM model was evaluated using the NASA Turbofan Engine Corruption Simulation dataset and its performance was benchmarked against alternative methodologies. The results of these applications demonstrated exceptional outcomes, with the LSTM model achieving the highest classification accuracy at 98.916% and the lowest mean average absolute error at 1.284%

    Computational aerodynamics analysis of non-symmetric multi-element wing in ground effect with humpback whale flipper tubercles

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    The humpback whale flipper tubercles have been shown to improve the aerodynamic coefficients of a wing, especially in stall conditions, where the flow is almost fully detached. In this work, these tubercles were implemented on a F1 front-wing geometry, very close to a Tyrrell wing. Numerical simulations were carried out employing the k−ω SST turbulence model and the overall effects of the tubercles on the flow behavior were analyzed. The optimal amplitude and number of tubercles was determined in this study for this front wing where an improvement of 22.6% and 9.4% is achieved, respectively, on the lift and the L/D ratio. On the main element, the stall was delayed by 167.7%. On the flap, the flow is either fully detached, in the large circulation zone, or fully attached. Overall, in stall conditions, tubercles improve the downforce generation but at the cost of increased drag. Furthermore, as the tubercles are case-dependent, an optimal configuration for tubercles implementation also exists for any geometry

    Aerodynamic and structural design of a 2022 Formula One front wing assembly

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    The aerodynamic loads generated in a wing are critical in its structural design. When multi-element wings with wingtip devices are selected, it is essential to identify and to quantify their structural behaviour to avoid undesirable deformations which degrade the aerodynamic performance. This research investigates these questions using numerical methods (Computational Fluid Dynamics and Finite Elements Analysis), employing exhaustive validation methods to ensure the accuracy of the results and to assess their uncertainty. Firstly, a thorough investigation of four baseline configurations is carried out, employing Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes equations and the k-ω SST (Shear Stress Transport) turbulence model to analyse and quantify the most important aerodynamic and structural parameters. Several structural configurations are analysed, including different materials (metal alloys and two designed fibre-reinforced composites). A 2022 front wing is designed based on a bidimensional three-element wing adapted to the 2022 FIA Formula One regulations and its structural components are selected based on a sensitivity analysis of the previous results. The outcome is a high-rigidity-weight wing which satisfies the technical regulations and lies under the maximum deformation established before the analysis. Additionally, the superposition principle is proven to be an excellent method to carry out high-performance structural designs

    Implicit large eddy simulation of the flow past NACA0012 aerofoil at a Reynolds number of 1x10^5

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    In this paper, the implicit Large Eddy Simulation (iLES) incorporating an unstructured 3rd-order Weighted Essential Non-Oscillatory (WENO) reconstruction method is investigated on the flow past NACA0012 aerofoil at a Reynolds number of 1 × 10^5. The flow features involve laminar separation, transition to turbulent and re-attachment. Simulations are carried out in the framework of open-source package OpenFOAM with a 2nd-order Euler implicit time integration and Pressure-Implicit Splitting-Operator (PISO) algorithm is used for the pressure-velocity coupling. Conventional LES with Wall Adapting Local Eddy Viscosity (WALE) model is also carried out as a baseline. The results are compared with Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) under the same flow configurations. The mean quantities such as pressure coefficient and the re-attached turbulent velocity profiles are in excellent agreement with the DNS reference. On the other hand, in the transitional region, the thickness of separation bubble obtained by both iLES and LES is thinner than the DNS. The current iLES approach has achieved a 35% reduction of mesh resolution compared to wall resolving LES and 70% reduction compared to DNS, while the accuracy is mostly satisfied

    Computational engineering analysis of external geometrical modifications on the MQ-1 unmanned combat aerial vehicle

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    This paper focuses on the effects of external geometrical modifications on the aerodynamic characteristics of the MQ-1 predator Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle (UCAV) using computational fluid dynamics. The investigations are performed for 16 flight conditions at an altitude of 7.6 km and at a constant speed of 56.32 m/s. Two models are analysed, namely the baseline model and the model with external geometrical modifications installed on it. Both the models are investigated for various angles of attack from −4° to 16°, angles of bank from 0° to 6° and angles of yaw from 0° to 4°. Due to the unavailability of any experimental (wind tunnel or flight test) data for this UCAV in the literature, a thorough verification of calculations process is presented to demonstrate confidence level in the numerical simulations. The analysis quantifies the loss of lift and increase in drag for the modified version of the MQ-1 predator UCAV along with the identification of stall conditions. Local improvement (in drag) of up to 96% has been obtained by relocating external modifications, whereas global drag force reduction of roughly 0.5% is observed. The effects of external geometrical modifications on the control surfaces indicate the blanking phenomenon and reduction in forces on the control surfaces that can reduce the aerodynamic performance of the UCAV
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