50 research outputs found

    Indoor air pollution of PM2.5 in urban households of Jammu, (J&K)

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    The rising problem of Respirable Particulate Matter i.e. PM2.5 and smaller is catching attention of the policymakers, stakeholders as well as common man. The study of the IndoorPM2.5 of the particular area is very important as it is having direct impact on the human health because PM2.5is absorbed into lung alveolar tissues during breathing and causes respiratory and cardiovascular problems. In present study attempt has been made to assess the status of Indoor PM2.5 in Urban Households of Jammu, (J&K). The average indoor PM2.5 in all the sampled households of Jammu was observed to be 99.49¬Ī35.84 ¬Ķg/m3 which is above the permissible limits of PM 2.5 as prescribed by CPCB. This type of study has been done for the first time in the northern region of India.  The data generated in present study will act as base line data for further studies pertaining to its ionic analysis as well as suggesting mitigation measure

    Seasonal variations of indoor aerosols (PM2.5) in urban households of Jammu (J&K), India

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    Indoor pollution is more harmful as people spend more than 90% of their time indoors getting enhanced chances of penetrating aerosols (PM2.5) deeply into the lungs. In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to study seasonal variations of indoor aerosols (PM2.5) in urban households of Jammu(J&K). in the northern region of India. The status of indoor aerosols (PM2.5) and their seasonal variations due to temperature and humidity conditions have been studied for the first time in urban households of Jammu (J&K). The two year study period (2017-2019.) revealed that all types of households of urban areas with non-wood fuel¬† as well as wood fuel burning practices exhibited significantly (p<0.05) higher values of indoor PM 2.5 during summer season (74.36 ¬Ķg/m3¬† and 156.46 ¬Ķg/m3 ) followed by winter season (62.77 ¬Ķg/m3¬†¬† and 143.5¬Ķg/m3 ) and lower values during the rainy season (58.47 ¬Ķg/m3 and 132.52 ¬Ķg/m3 ). All these values were observed to be above the CPCB prescribed annual limit of 40 ¬Ķg/m3, thereby exposing the residents to diseases of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems.¬† The data generated in the present study will act as baseline data for future studies pertaining to indoor aerosols (PM2.5) as well as suggesting mitigation measures

    Assessment of bacteria and SPM in the indoor air of households of urban area of Jammu (J&K), India

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    The present study was conducted to assess status of bacteria (Gram +ve and Gram ‚Äďve) in the indoor air of Households located in Jammu city. The study area was divided into eight Sites. At each site two Households were selected randomly and in each Household sampling of SPM (?g/m3) and bacteria (CFU/m3) was done twice at three sub sites. Total bacterial count and SPM was found to be maximum (9308.24 CFU/m3and1006.12 ?g/m3 respectively) in Households near Water Body and total bacterial count and SPM was minimum (5251.00 CFU/m3and 659.09?g/m3respectively) in Households near Hospital. A significant positive correlation (r) was found between SPM and no. of Gram +ve (+0.18 to +0.78) as well as between SPM and no. of Gram ‚Äďve (+0.21 to +0.76) bacteria in the study area

    Biomedical waste generation, composition and management: A case study of Shree Maharaja Gulab Singh Hospital (SMGS) Shalamar, Jammu (J&K)

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    For the life, health and general well-being, good medical care play vital role and hospitals are health institutions that provide these services. Wastes generated from the hospitals, medical care units, blood banks and medical laboratory is called biomedical waste. Proper management of biomedical waste is important for good health of not only the patients but also for residents living in the vicinity of hospitals. The present study, has been made to study biomedical waste management in SMGS Hospital Jammu (Jammu and Kashmir). The average biomedical waste per bed per day of SMGS Hospital was observed to be 116.37g, whereas maximum value of average biomedical waste per bed per day was observed to be 315.61g in Gynecology and  Obstetric, 68.34g in ENT wards, 37.28g in Paedriatic wards and 44.27g in Dermatology wards The average per bed per day biomedical waste generation in SMGS hospital appears to be  is less as compared with work of other workers because their evaluations were based on Biomedical Waste (Management and Handing) Rules, 1998 in which both infectious and non-infectious waste were included whereas present study was based on Bio-Medical Waste Management Rules which included only infectious waste

    Ion chromatography determination of anionic change in surface and ground water due to industrial effluents in Jammu (J&K), India

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    In present investigation of anionic (fluoride, chloride, bromide, phosphate and sulphate) change in surface and ground water due to industrial effluents by ion chromatography technique has been determined in area of Jammu using Ion-chromatograph (IC-850).Surface and ground water samples were taken before and after discharge of industrial effluents. All required standards for calibration and all the samples (water as well as industrial effluents) have been prepared by using ultra pure water obtained from M Millipore. Both the peak height (PH) and peak area (PA) were used to assess the IC signals. All the peaks for anions were clear with good resolution and there were no interactions between them. The total time for anion analysis was recorded to be about 28 minutes .Anions like fluoride exhibited drastic change in concentration in surface and ground water samples taken after discharge of industrial effluents

    Day time variations in noise levels at major crossings of Jammu city, India

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    The present study has been carried to assess Equivalent noise level (Leq), Noise climate (NC), Traffic noise index (TNI) and Day Time Average Noise level from7.00 A.M. to 9.00 P.M (Ld) at eleven major crossings of Jammu City. The Leq and Ld values at all the sites were observed to be above permissible limits prescribed by CPCB. The calculated values of Ld at all the sites were observed to be statistically significant at 0.05 (5%) level of significance (p=0.000-0.004)

    Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults.

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    BACKGROUND: Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those of adults. METHODS: We pooled 2416 population-based studies with measurements of height and weight on 128·9 million participants aged 5 years and older, including 31·5 million aged 5-19 years. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends from 1975 to 2016 in 200 countries for mean BMI and for prevalence of BMI in the following categories for children and adolescents aged 5-19 years: more than 2 SD below the median of the WHO growth reference for children and adolescents (referred to as moderate and severe underweight hereafter), 2 SD to more than 1 SD below the median (mild underweight), 1 SD below the median to 1 SD above the median (healthy weight), more than 1 SD to 2 SD above the median (overweight but not obese), and more than 2 SD above the median (obesity). FINDINGS: Regional change in age-standardised mean BMI in girls from 1975 to 2016 ranged from virtually no change (-0·01 kg/m2 per decade; 95% credible interval -0·42 to 0·39, posterior probability [PP] of the observed decrease being a true decrease=0·5098) in eastern Europe to an increase of 1·00 kg/m2 per decade (0·69-1·35, PP>0·9999) in central Latin America and an increase of 0·95 kg/m2 per decade (0·64-1·25, PP>0·9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. The range for boys was from a non-significant increase of 0·09 kg/m2 per decade (-0·33 to 0·49, PP=0·6926) in eastern Europe to an increase of 0·77 kg/m2 per decade (0·50-1·06, PP>0·9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. Trends in mean BMI have recently flattened in northwestern Europe and the high-income English-speaking and Asia-Pacific regions for both sexes, southwestern Europe for boys, and central and Andean Latin America for girls. By contrast, the rise in BMI has accelerated in east and south Asia for both sexes, and southeast Asia for boys. Global age-standardised prevalence of obesity increased from 0·7% (0·4-1·2) in 1975 to 5·6% (4·8-6·5) in 2016 in girls, and from 0·9% (0·5-1·3) in 1975 to 7·8% (6·7-9·1) in 2016 in boys; the prevalence of moderate and severe underweight decreased from 9·2% (6·0-12·9) in 1975 to 8·4% (6·8-10·1) in 2016 in girls and from 14·8% (10·4-19·5) in 1975 to 12·4% (10·3-14·5) in 2016 in boys. Prevalence of moderate and severe underweight was highest in India, at 22·7% (16·7-29·6) among girls and 30·7% (23·5-38·0) among boys. Prevalence of obesity was more than 30% in girls in Nauru, the Cook Islands, and Palau; and boys in the Cook Islands, Nauru, Palau, Niue, and American Samoa in 2016. Prevalence of obesity was about 20% or more in several countries in Polynesia and Micronesia, the Middle East and north Africa, the Caribbean, and the USA. In 2016, 75 (44-117) million girls and 117 (70-178) million boys worldwide were moderately or severely underweight. In the same year, 50 (24-89) million girls and 74 (39-125) million boys worldwide were obese. INTERPRETATION: The rising trends in children's and adolescents' BMI have plateaued in many high-income countries, albeit at high levels, but have accelerated in parts of Asia, with trends no longer correlated with those of adults. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust, AstraZeneca Young Health Programme

    Contributions of mean and shape of blood pressure distribution to worldwide trends and variations in raised blood pressure: A pooled analysis of 1018 population-based measurement studies with 88.6 million participants

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    © The Author(s) 2018. Background: Change in the prevalence of raised blood pressure could be due to both shifts in the entire distribution of blood pressure (representing the combined effects of public health interventions and secular trends) and changes in its high-blood-pressure tail (representing successful clinical interventions to control blood pressure in the hypertensive population). Our aim was to quantify the contributions of these two phenomena to the worldwide trends in the prevalence of raised blood pressure. Methods: We pooled 1018 population-based studies with blood pressure measurements on 88.6 million participants from 1985 to 2016. We first calculated mean systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and prevalence of raised blood pressure by sex and 10-year age group from 20-29 years to 70-79 years in each study, taking into account complex survey design and survey sample weights, where relevant. We used a linear mixed effect model to quantify the association between (probittransformed) prevalence of raised blood pressure and age-group- and sex-specific mean blood pressure. We calculated the contributions of change in mean SBP and DBP, and of change in the prevalence-mean association, to the change in prevalence of raised blood pressure. Results: In 2005-16, at the same level of population mean SBP and DBP, men and women in South Asia and in Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa would have the highest prevalence of raised blood pressure, and men and women in the highincome Asia Pacific and high-income Western regions would have the lowest. In most region-sex-age groups where the prevalence of raised blood pressure declined, one half or more of the decline was due to the decline in mean blood pressure. Where prevalence of raised blood pressure has increased, the change was entirely driven by increasing mean blood pressure, offset partly by the change in the prevalence-mean association. Conclusions: Change in mean blood pressure is the main driver of the worldwide change in the prevalence of raised blood pressure, but change in the high-blood-pressure tail of the distribution has also contributed to the change in prevalence, especially in older age groups

    Height and body-mass index trajectories of school-aged children and adolescents from 1985 to 2019 in 200 countries and territories: a pooled analysis of 2181 population-based studies with 65 million participants

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    Summary Background Comparable global data on health and nutrition of school-aged children and adolescents are scarce. We aimed to estimate age trajectories and time trends in mean height and mean body-mass index (BMI), which measures weight gain beyond what is expected from height gain, for school-aged children and adolescents. Methods For this pooled analysis, we used a database of cardiometabolic risk factors collated by the Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factor Collaboration. We applied a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends from 1985 to 2019 in mean height and mean BMI in 1-year age groups for ages 5‚Äď19 years. The model allowed for non-linear changes over time in mean height and mean BMI and for non-linear changes with age of children and adolescents, including periods of rapid growth during adolescence. Findings We pooled data from 2181 population-based studies, with measurements of height and weight in 65 million participants in 200 countries and territories. In 2019, we estimated a difference of 20 cm or higher in mean height of 19-year-old adolescents between countries with the tallest populations (the Netherlands, Montenegro, Estonia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina for boys; and the Netherlands, Montenegro, Denmark, and Iceland for girls) and those with the shortest populations (Timor-Leste, Laos, Solomon Islands, and Papua New Guinea for boys; and Guatemala, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Timor-Leste for girls). In the same year, the difference between the highest mean BMI (in Pacific island countries, Kuwait, Bahrain, The Bahamas, Chile, the USA, and New Zealand for both boys and girls and in South Africa for girls) and lowest mean BMI (in India, Bangladesh, Timor-Leste, Ethiopia, and Chad for boys and girls; and in Japan and Romania for girls) was approximately 9‚Äď10 kg/m2. In some countries, children aged 5 years started with healthier height or BMI than the global median and, in some cases, as healthy as the best performing countries, but they became progressively less healthy compared with their comparators as they grew older by not growing as tall (eg, boys in Austria and Barbados, and girls in Belgium and Puerto Rico) or gaining too much weight for their height (eg, girls and boys in Kuwait, Bahrain, Fiji, Jamaica, and Mexico; and girls in South Africa and New Zealand). In other countries, growing children overtook the height of their comparators (eg, Latvia, Czech Republic, Morocco, and Iran) or curbed their weight gain (eg, Italy, France, and Croatia) in late childhood and adolescence. When changes in both height and BMI were considered, girls in South Korea, Vietnam, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and some central Asian countries (eg, Armenia and Azerbaijan), and boys in central and western Europe (eg, Portugal, Denmark, Poland, and Montenegro) had the healthiest changes in anthropometric status over the past 3¬∑5 decades because, compared with children and adolescents in other countries, they had a much larger gain in height than they did in BMI. The unhealthiest changes‚ÄĒgaining too little height, too much weight for their height compared with children in other countries, or both‚ÄĒoccurred in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, New Zealand, and the USA for boys and girls; in Malaysia and some Pacific island nations for boys; and in Mexico for girls. Interpretation The height and BMI trajectories over age and time of school-aged children and adolescents are highly variable across countries, which indicates heterogeneous nutritional quality and lifelong health advantages and risks

    Rising rural body-mass index is the main driver of the global obesity epidemic in adults