3,260 research outputs found

    Reduced heart rate variability predicts fatigue severity in individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis

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    Heart rate variability (HRV) is an objective, non-invasive tool to assessing autonomic dysfunction in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). People with CFS/ME tend to have lower HRV; however, in the literature there are only a few previous studies (most of them inconclusive) on their association with illness-related complaints. To address this issue, we assessed the value of different diurnal HRV parameters as potential biomarker in CFS/ME and also investigated the relationship between these HRV indices and self-reported symptoms in individuals with CFS/ME.Peer ReviewedPostprint (published version

    Video pulse rate variability analysis in stationary and motion conditions

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    Background: In the last few years, some studies have measured heart rate (HR) or heart rate variability (HRV) parameters using a video camera. This technique focuses on the measurement of the small changes in skin colour caused by blood perfusion. To date, most of these works have obtained HRV parameters in stationary conditions, and there are practically no studies that obtain these parameters in motion scenarios and by conducting an in-depth statistical analysis. Methods: In this study, a video pulse rate variability (PRV) analysis is conducted by measuring the pulse-to-pulse (PP) intervals in stationary and motion conditions. Firstly, given the importance of the sampling rate in a PRV analysis and the low frame rate of commercial cameras, we carried out an analysis of two models to evaluate their performance in the measurements. We propose a selective tracking method using the Viola–Jones and KLT algorithms, with the aim of carrying out a robust video PRV analysis in stationary and motion conditions. Data and results of the proposed method are contrasted with those reported in the state of the art. Results: The webcam achieved better results in the performance analysis of video cameras. In stationary conditions, high correlation values were obtained in PRV parameters with results above 0.9. The PP time series achieved an RMSE (mean ± standard deviation) of 19.45 ± 5.52 ms (1.70 ± 0.75 bpm). In the motion analysis, most of the PRV parameters also achieved good correlation results, but with lower values as regards stationary conditions. The PP time series presented an RMSE of 21.56 ± 6.41 ms (1.79 ± 0.63 bpm). Conclusions: The statistical analysis showed good agreement between the reference system and the proposed method. In stationary conditions, the results of PRV parameters were improved by our method in comparison with data reported in related works. An overall comparative analysis of PRV parameters in motion conditions was more limited due to the lack of studies or studies containing insufficient data analysis. Based on the results, the proposed method could provide a low-cost, contactless and reliable alternative for measuring HR or PRV parameters in non-clinical environments.Peer ReviewedPostprint (published version

    Empresa de Energía de Bogotá S.A. E.S.P.

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    La inversión en la Empresa de Energía de Bogotá, presenta un riesgo moderado, principalmente por el riesgo político que se genera al ser una empresa pública, ya que su mayor accionista, el Distrito Capital de Bogotá, con el 76% aproximadamente, hace que los cambios que se presentan, repercutan en la imagen que tienen los inversionistas sobre la acción y su perspectiva a futuro -- Por medio del análisis hemos identificado la gran importancia que representa el negocio de gas natural, tanto distribución como transporte, el cual viene creciendo a tasas muy representativas y se prevee una buena inversión fuera del país, principalmente en Perú -- Se recomienda tomar posiciones largas en el activo, ya que la empresa presenta unos fundamentales muy estables y presenta un potencial de valorización del 11.13% respecto a su precio de mercado actua

    Sub-Femto-g free fall for space-based gravitational wave observatories : LISA Pathfinder results

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    We report the first results of the LISA Pathfinder in-flight experiment. The results demonstrate that two free-falling reference test masses, such as those needed for a space-based gravitational wave observatory like LISA, can be put in free fall with a relative acceleration noise with a square root of the power spectral density of 5.2 +/- 0.1 fm s(-2)/root Hz, or (0.54 +/- 0.01) x 10(-15) g/root Hz, with g the standard gravity, for frequencies between 0.7 and 20 mHz. This value is lower than the LISA Pathfinder requirement by more than a factor 5 and within a factor 1.25 of the requirement for the LISA mission, and is compatible with Brownian noise from viscous damping due to the residual gas surrounding the test masses. Above 60 mHz the acceleration noise is dominated by interferometer displacement readout noise at a level of (34.8 +/- 0.3) fm/root Hz, about 2 orders of magnitude better than requirements. At f <= 0.5 mHz we observe a low-frequency tail that stays below 12 fm s(-2)/root Hz down to 0.1 mHz. This performance would allow for a space-based gravitational wave observatory with a sensitivity close to what was originally foreseen for LISA.Peer ReviewedPostprint (published version

    LISA pathfinder micronewton cold gas thrusters: in-flight characterization

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    The LISA Pathfinder (LPF) mission has demonstrated the ability to limit and measure the fluctuations in acceleration between two free falling test masses down to sub-femto-g levels. One of the key elements to achieve such a level of residual acceleration is the drag free control. In this scheme the spacecraft is used as a shield against any external disturbances by adjusting its relative position to a reference test mass. The actuators used to move the spacecraft are cold gas micropropulsion thrusters. In this paper, we report in-flight characterization of these thrusters in term of noise and artefacts during science operations using all the metrology capabilities of LISA Pathfinder. Using the LISA Pathfinder test masses as an inertial reference frame, an average thruster noise of ~0.17¿¿µN/Hz is observed and decomposed into a common (coherent) and an uncorrelated component. The very low noise and stability of the onboard metrology system associated with the quietness of the space environment allowed the measurement of the thruster noise down to ~20¿¿µHz, more than an order of magnitude below any ground measurement. Spectral lines were observed around ~1.5¿¿mHz and its harmonics and around 55 and 70 mHz. They are associated with the cold gas system itself and possibly to a clock synchronization issue. The thruster noise-floor exhibits an excess of ~70% compared to characterization that have been made on ground on a single unit and without the feeding system. However this small excess has no impact on the LPF mission performance and is compatible with the noise budget for the upcoming LISA gravitational wave observatory. Over the whole mission, nominal, and extension, the thrusters showed remarkable stability for both the science operations and the different maneuvers necessary to maintain LPF on its orbit around L1. It is therefore concluded that a similar cold gas system would be a viable propulsion system for the future LISA mission.Peer ReviewedPostprint (author's final draft

    Novel methods to measure the gravitational constant in space

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    We present two novel methods, tested by LISA Pathfinder, to measure the gravitational constant G for the first time in space. Experiment 1 uses electrostatic suspension forces to measure a change in acceleration of a test mass due to a displaced source mass. Experiment 2 measures a change in relative acceleration between two test masses due to a slowly varying fuel tank mass. Experiment 1 gave a value of G=6.71±0.42(×10-11)¿¿m3¿s-2¿kg-1 and experiment 2 gave 6.15±0.35(×10-11)¿¿m3¿s-2¿kg-1, both consistent with each other to 1s and with the CODATA 2014 recommended value of 6.67408±0.00031(×10-11)¿¿m3¿s-2¿kg-1 to 2s. We outline several ideas to improve the results for a future experiment, and we suggest that a measurement in space would isolate many terrestrial issues that could be responsible for the inconsistencies between recent measurements.Peer ReviewedPostprint (published version

    Temperature stability in the sub-milliHertz band with LISA Pathfinder

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    This article has been accepted for publication in "Monthly notices of the royal astronomical society" published by Oxford University Press.LISA Pathfinder (LPF) was a technology pioneering mission designed to test key technologies required for gravitational wave detection in space. In the low frequency regime (milliHertz and below), where space-based gravitational wave observatories will operate, temperature fluctuations play a crucial role since they can couple into the interferometric measurement and the test masses’ free-fall accuracy in many ways. A dedicated temperature measurement subsystem, with noise levels in 10¿µK¿Hz-1/2 down to 1¿mHz was part of the diagnostics unit onboard LPF. In this paper we report on the temperature measurements throughout mission operations, characterize the thermal environment, estimate transfer functions between different locations, and report temperature stability (and its time evolution) at frequencies as low as 10¿µHz, where typically values around 1¿K¿Hz-1/2 were measured.Peer ReviewedPreprin

    Characteristics and energy dependence of recurrent galactic cosmic-ray flux depressions and of a forbush decrease with LISA Pathfinder

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    The final publication is available at IOS Press through http://dx.doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aaa774Galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) energy spectra observed in the inner heliosphere are modulated by the solar activity, the solar polarity and structures of solar and interplanetary origin. A high counting rate particle detector (PD) aboard LISA Pathfinder, meant for subsystems diagnostics, was devoted to the measurement of GCR and solar energetic particle integral fluxes above 70 MeV n-1 up to 6500 counts s-1. PD data were gathered with a sampling time of 15 s. Characteristics and energy dependence of GCR flux recurrent depressions and of a Forbush decrease dated 2016 August 2 are reported here. The capability of interplanetary missions, carrying PDs for instrument performance purposes, in monitoring the passage of interplanetary coronal mass ejections is also discussed.Peer ReviewedPreprin
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