37 research outputs found

    The impact of fertiliser subsidy and new variety of paddy on Malaysian paddy/rice industry

    Get PDF
    Rice is a staple food for the Malaysian population. Special attention is always given by the government to ensure the sustainability of the Malaysian paddy/rice industry. In order to encourage paddy farmers to increase paddy production, a food security policy for the paddy/ rice sector has been implemented by the government towards self-sufficiency by 2020. There are three types of government intervention on Malaysian paddy and rice industry namely fertiliser subsidy, price support and import restriction or quota. There would be some impact to the industry if the government decides to implement a trade liberalisation policy. This is because trade liberalisation involves removing barriers to trade between different countries. Therefore, it would cause the supporting elements of the industry to be limited. In view of this this study has made its main objective the simulation of the impact of a fertiliser subsidy on the Malaysian paddy and rice industry. The methodology used is the system dynamics model. In addition, this study also attempts to simulate the impact of improvement in yield on the performance of the system. The simulation results suggest that there would be a positive impact to the industry with the implementation of the current policy for fertiliser subsidy. Yield obtained would increase with the implementation of the fertiliser subsidy. Consequently, it would increase paddy production. Paddy production would decrease if the government decides to remove the fertiliser subsidy. Hence the self sufficiency level (SSL) also would decrease. Due to the reduction in production, the importation of rice seems unavoidable in order to meet the demand. Meanwhile, due to population growth, the government needs to find alternative policies to sustain the industry and increase imports in order to ensure adequate supply of rice for the Malaysian population. The simulation results indicate that the introduction of a new variety of paddy leads to increase in yield, and in turn to increase in the production level. The percentage increase in yield and production is about 3% per year

    Green Revolution’s Role and Impact: Organic Farming Potential for Indonesian Sustainable Agriculture

    Get PDF
    In 1960s, Indonesia experienced serious rice insufficiency and was one of the largest rice importing countries. The government was encouraged to achieve rice self-sufficiency, i.e. implementing the green revolution (GR) technology through promoting modern agricultural inputs adoption. GR had helped Indonesia to achieve rice self- sufficiency in 1984. However, such technology deals with some problems, e.g. environmental destruction and farmers’ dependence on agrochemical industry.  Many consider organic farming system is the solution to address this issue as its practice offers the best way toward sustainable food production and resources use. Demand for organic rice is expected to increase in the future along with the population and income growth. However, prospect of organic rice farming is still uncertain as its adoption is very low. The main challenge is farmers’ unease on yield reduction. Other crucial problems are lack of technical know-how and government supports as well as increase in costs of land conversion and chemical contaminations from conventional farming. It is necessary to conduct more in-depth studies on the factors influencing farmers’ willingness to adopt organic farming. It will be useful for the government to design appropriate strategies and policies to accelerate organic rice farming adoption. AbstrakPada 1960-an, Indonesia mengalami kekurangan beras dan termasuk salah satu pengimpor beras terbesar di dunia. Pemerintah saat itu memprioritaskan pemenuhan beras dengan target swasembada dengan berbagai upaya, seperti penerapan teknologi revolusi hijau (RH) melalui penggunaan input pertanian modern. RH terbukti membuat Indonesia mencapai swasembada beras pada tahun 1984. Namun, teknologi tersebut juga telah menyebabkan dampak negatif, terutama kerusakan lingkungan dan petani sangat bergantung pada industri agro- kimia. Beberapa kalangan menganggap sistem pertanian organik adalah solusi untuk mengatasi masalah ini. Pertanian organik menawarkan cara terbaik untuk produksi pangan dan penggunaan sumber daya secara berkelanjutan dan ramah lingkungan. Permintaan beras organik diperkirakan akan meningkat di masa mendatang seiring dengan pertumbuhan penduduk dan pendapatan. Adopsi pertanian organik masih sangat lambat. Tantangan utama pertanian padi organik adalah kekhawatiran anjloknya hasil panen ketika melakukan konversi. Permasalahan  lainnya  adalah  kurangnya  pengetahuan  teknis  dan  dukungan  pemerintah,  mahalnya  biaya konversi dan kontaminasi bahan kimia dari pertanian konvensional. Diperlukan penelitian yang lebih mendalam tentang faktor-faktor yang memengaruhi petani untuk mengadopsi pertanian organik. Dengan demikian pemerintah dapat merancang strategi dan kebijakan yang tepat untuk mempercepat adopsi pertanian padi organik

    Non-growers’ perspectives on home gardening: Exploring for future attraction

    Get PDF
    To achieve urban sustainability, growing vegetables at home is a practical necessity. Understanding why people are hesitant to participate in urban vegetable growing is vital to reviving this practice. An in-person survey was conducted among 244 people who do not garden at home in Sri Lanka’s Colombo district to determine their perception of not gardening. Analysis was performed with exploratory factor analysis followed by binary logistic regression. According to the study, unrealized benefits and knowledge and experience challenges cause demotivation. The respondents had favorable attitudes toward urban agriculture; their interests appear to be aligned with urban agriculture and motivation should be able to entice them. The most viable way to attract them and ensure that they reap the economic and social benefits of urban home gardening appears to be to provide knowledge and hands-on experience. Younger people, private sector workers, and single homeowners are specific population segments that can be targeted for this motivation effort. The analysis further revealed that agriculture demonstrations in an urban setting inspire non-growers to practice urban agriculture

    Non-growers’ perspectives on home gardening: Exploring for future attraction

    Get PDF
    To achieve urban sustainability, growing vegetables at home is a practical necessity. Understanding why people are hesitant to participate in urban vegetable growing is vital to reviving this practice. An in-person survey was conducted among 244 people who do not garden at home in Sri Lanka’s Colombo district to determine their perception of not gardening. Analysis was performed with exploratory factor analysis followed by binary logistic regression. According to the study, unrealized benefits and knowledge and experience challenges cause demotivation. The respondents had favorable attitudes toward urban agriculture; their interests appear to be aligned with urban agriculture and motivation should be able to entice them. The most viable way to attract them and ensure that they reap the economic and social benefits of urban home gardening appears to be to provide knowledge and hands-on experience. Younger people, private sector workers, and single homeowners are specific population segments that can be targeted for this motivation effort. The analysis further revealed that agriculture demonstrations in an urban setting inspire non-growers to practice urban agriculture

    The impact of fertiliser subsidy and new variety of variety of paddy on Malaysian paddy/rice industry

    Get PDF
    Rice is a staple food for the Malaysian population. Special attention is always given by the government to ensure the sustainability of the Malaysian paddy/rice industry. In order to encourage paddy farmers to increase paddy production, a food security policy for the paddy/ rice sector has been implemented by the government towards self-sufficiency by 2020. There are three types of government intervention on Malaysian paddy and rice industry namely fertiliser subsidy, price support and import restriction or quota. There would be some impact to the industry if the government decides to implement a trade liberalisation policy. This is because trade liberalisation involves removing barriers to trade between different countries. Therefore, it would cause the supporting elements of the industry to be limited. In view of this this study has made its main objective the simulation of the impact of a fertiliser subsidy on the Malaysian paddy and rice industry. The methodology used is the system dynamics model. In addition, this study also attempts to simulate the impact of improvement in yield on the performance of the system. The simulation results suggest that there would be a positive impact to the industry with the implementation of the current policy for fertiliser subsidy. Yield obtained would increase with the implementation of the fertiliser subsidy. Consequently, it would increase paddy production. Paddy production would decrease if the government decides to remove the fertiliser subsidy. Hence the self sufficiency level (SSL) also would decrease. Due to the reduction in production, the importation of rice seems unavoidable in order to meet the demand. Meanwhile, due to population growth, the government needs to find alternative policies to sustain the industry and increase imports in order to ensure adequate supply of rice for the Malaysian population. The simulation results indicate that the introduction of a new variety of paddy leads to increase in yield, and in turn to increase in the production level. The percentage increase in yield and production is about 3% per year

    A review on recent development of minimum quantity lubrication for sustainable machining

    Get PDF
    Achieving sustainable machining is in demand nowadays and it is in line with the rise of global eco-awareness and rigorous regulations by the authorities to prevent from further damaging the environment and its constituents. One of the sustainable solutions extensively explored over the years is machining with minimum quantity lubrication system. Nevertheless, there is still room to improve this system as minimum quantity lubrication assisted machining poses some challenges. This paper provides a review of research articles involving the improvements made to enhance machining performance with minimum quantity lubrication system. To carry out the study, three search databases are used to compile all the minimum quantity lubrication advancements published over a span of 6 most recent years from 2014 to 2019. The machining performance are compiled for each category of advancements: minimum quantity lubrication with additives, minimum quantity lubrication with cooled air/gas as well as restructuring minimum quantity lubrication system and critically considers the experiment details such as workpiece material, machining process, cutting tool material, cooling/lubrication condition, cutting fluid and the output measurements, namely surface roughness, tool wear, cutting force and cutting temperature. Results obtained from the articles mostly show that the minimum quantity lubrication advancements outperform an independent minimum quantity lubrication system by generating better surface quality, providing lower tool wear and cutting force

    Exploring Muslim Consumers’ Acceptance of Cultured Beef Meat

    Get PDF
    The advancement in cultured meat research in cellular agriculture has greatly surged. The concerns of halalness and thayibban (cleanliness and permissibility to consume) of cultured beef meat will arise among Muslim consumers, prompting the question, “Who will consume the cultured meat, and are Muslims ready to consume it?” This study aimed to clarify how Muslims perceive cultured meat and the issues surrounding their acceptance. A chi-square test and a binary logistic regression analysis were applied to reveal the acceptance of cultured meat. The results revealed that 44.1% of the respondents accepted cultured meat as their food, while 55.9% expressed doubts due to religious concerns. Their attitudes toward cultured meat influenced their decision to accept it as food. Some consumers had high expectations for cultured meat because they believed it would be superior in taste and have nutritional value and health effects. In conclusion, those Muslims who did not doubt cultured meat accepted it as future food with expectations for better function and value

    Evaluation of energy consumption in small-scale agarwood distillation pot based on averaged control signal simulation

    Get PDF
    Water temperature of a hydro distillation process are represented by using first order plus dead time (FOPDT) model by performing a step test. From the model obtained, a PID controller have been implemented based on several tuning method includes Ziegler-Nichols, Cohen-Coon and Integral Square Error (ISE)-Load to enhance the performance of the system. In this study, a setpoint was set to 80°C and the comparative performance of PID controller with several tuning rules was evaluate and analyse via simulation. The analysis of the performance was depend on settling time, percentage of overshoot and rise time. Moreover, in this study, the average amount of control signal have been evaluated based on several tuning rules by using an integral control signal. The simulation result shows the ISE-Load that completed with minimum percentage of overshoot could result in best temperature control for hydro distillation process. However, in term of energy consumption, PID ZN gives lower energy usage

    Intention to adopt a new variety of paddy among farmers in Terengganu, Malaysia

    Get PDF
    Rice security has been consistently in Malaysia’s self-sufficiency program as it is a staple food for vast majority of the population. One of the main reasons of low paddy productivity is due to rice blast disease which is caused by fungus pathogen, Magnaphorthe oryzae. Putra 1 is one of the Universiti Putra Malaysia (PadiU Putra) technologies introduced in 2017 and has proven to be the best variety to combat blast diseases and increasing yield of paddy per acre based on trials that has been conducted in Besut, Terengganu. However, a clear perception about this new variety among paddy farmers is anonymous. Therefore, this research aims to explore the latent factors that could influence the adoption intention of Putra 1 by paddy farmers in Besut, Terengganu. Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) was used as theoretical framework to analyze the paddy farmer’s intention to adopt Putra 1 as their new variety to replace the existing variety. Descriptive analysis and factor analysis were then performed in order to extract the latent factor from factor analysis while the descriptive analysis is used to measure the distribution of the data in term of it central tendency and normality. The interview of paddy farmers in Besut, Terengganu was done from April to May 2017.The results showed that four factors; , attitude, subjective norms, knowledge and perceived behavioural control significantly affect farmers’ intention to adopt Putra 1. Thus, encouraging paddy farmers to adopt the new variety can help to control blast diseases, increase production and hence the level of self-sufficiency

    Evaluation on energy consumption in compact hydro distillation process between MPC and PID control

    Get PDF
    This paper presents the comparison of the MPC and PID control in compact hydro distillation process. Both of PID controllers and MPC undergone the performances of controller tests such as set point, set point change and load disturbances. The comparative performances of MPC and PID controllers (PIDCC and PIDZN) were evaluated and analysed based on transient responses performance and also in term of energy consumption via simulation. The simulation results show that MPC gives good performances in term of transient responses such as settling time, rise time and percentage of overshoot. Moreover, in term of energy consumption, the integral absolute control signal (IACS) has been used to simulate the energy that have been consumed. The result indicates that, MPC produces lower IACS compared to both PID controllers
    corecore