29,067 research outputs found

    Tracer techniques for urine volume determination and urine collection and sampling back-up system

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    The feasibility, functionality, and overall accuracy of the use of lithium were investigated as a chemical tracer in urine for providing a means of indirect determination of total urine volume by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry method. Experiments were conducted to investigate the parameters of instrumentation, tracer concentration, mixing times, and methods for incorporating the tracer material in the urine collection bag, and to refine and optimize the urine tracer technique to comply with the Skylab scheme and operational parameters of + or - 2% of volume error and + or - 1% accuracy of amount of tracer added to each container. In addition, a back-up method for urine collection and sampling system was developed and evaluated. This back-up method incorporates the tracer technique for volume determination in event of failure of the primary urine collection and preservation system. One chemical preservative was selected and evaluated as a contingency chemical preservative for the storage of urine in event of failure of the urine cooling system

    Iron K-alpha Emission from X-ray Reflection: Predictions for Gamma-Ray Burst Models

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    Recent observations of several gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows have shown evidence for a large amount of X-ray line emitting material, possibly arising from ionized iron. A significant detection of an X-ray spectral feature, such as that found in the Chandra observation of GRB 991216, may provide important constraints on the immediate environment of the burst and hence on progenitor models. The large Fe K-alpha equivalent widths inferred from the X-ray observations favor models in which the line is produced when the primary X-ray emission from the source strikes Thomson-thick material and Compton scatters into our line of sight. We present such reflection spectra here, computed in a fully self-consistent manner, and discuss the range of ionization parameters that may be relevant to different models of GRBs. We argue that the presence of a strong hydrogen-like K-alpha line is unlikely, because Fe-XXVI photons would be trapped resonantly and removed from the line core by Compton scattering. In contrast, a strong narrow emission line from He-like Fe-XXV is prominent in the model spectra. We briefly discuss how these constraints may affect the line energy determination in GRB 991216.Comment: 8 pages, 3 figures, Ap.J. Letters accepte

    The phase diagram of ice: a quasi-harmonic study based on a flexible water model

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    The phase diagram of ice is studied by a quasi-harmonic approximation. The free energy of all experimentally known ice phases has been calculated with the flexible q-TIP4P/F model of water. The only exception is the high pressure ice X, in which the presence of symmetric O-H-O bonds prevents its modeling with this empirical interatomic potential. The simplicity of our approach allows us to study ice phases at state points of the T-P plane that have been omitted in previous simulations using free energy methods based on thermodynamic integration. The effect in the phase diagram of averaging the proton disorder that appears in several ice phases has been studied. It is found particularly relevant for ice III, at least for cell sizes typically used in phase coexistence simulations. New insight into the capability of the employed water model to describe the coexistence of ice phases is presented. We find that the H-ordered ices IX and XIV, as well as the H-disordered ice XII, are particularly stable for this water model. This fact disagrees with experimental data. The unexpected large stability of ice IX is a property related to the TIP4P-character of the water model. Only after omission of these three stable ice phases, the calculated phase diagram becomes in reasonable qualitative agreement to the experimental one in the T-P region corresponding to ice Ih, II, III, V, and VI. The calculation of the phase diagram in the quantum and classical limits shows that the most important quantum effect is the stabilization of ice II due to its lower zero-point energy when compared to that one of ices Ih, III, and V.Comment: 13 pages, 8 figures, 5 table
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