162 research outputs found

    Prioritizing Metro Service Quality Attributes to Enhance Commuter Experience: TOPSIS Ranking and Importance Satisfaction Analysis methods

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    A metro infrastructure, facility and service quality investigation based on commuter perception was conducted in this study to explore and prioritize the key attributes influencing overall metro service quality in typical Indian context. Based on the critical state of the art review, 12 key attributes were identified and they were accommodated in a paper based questionnaire to elicit commuter perception of importance and satisfaction by using a five point Likert scale. Subsequently, TOPSIS, an extensively adopted Multi attribute decision making technique, was carried out to rank the attributes with respect to perceived importance and satisfaction. Then an importance satisfaction analysis (ISA) was conducted to further classify the attributes in four quadrants based on their perceived degree of importance and satisfaction using an ISA matrix. Finally, the derived results from the TOPSIS and ISA analysis were combined and compared to obtain a prioritized set of attributes requiring intervention for better metro service quality in Indian context. Results of this study clearly indicated the relative strengths and weaknesses of each metro service/infrastructure specific attribute and presented the probable role of metro authorities for each of them. Attributes such as, Metro fare, Connection to metro and Metro frequency were observed to be the most important but were not performing satisfactorily, indicating that more emphasis is required on these attributes for improving the overall quality of travel by metro rail in Indian context. Hence, this methodology would be instrumental to detect a set of priority areas of improvement in metro rail service, which could contribute to retain the existing commuters and attract new metro users

    Varespladib and cardiovascular events in patients with an acute coronary syndrome: the VISTA-16 randomized clinical trial

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    IMPORTANCE: Secretory phospholipase A2(sPLA2) generates bioactive phospholipid products implicated in atherosclerosis. The sPLA2inhibitor varespladib has favorable effects on lipid and inflammatory markers; however, its effect on cardiovascular outcomes is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of sPLA2inhibition with varespladib on cardiovascular outcomes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A double-blind, randomized, multicenter trial at 362 academic and community hospitals in Europe, Australia, New Zealand, India, and North America of 5145 patients randomized within 96 hours of presentation of an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) to either varespladib (n = 2572) or placebo (n = 2573) with enrollment between June 1, 2010, and March 7, 2012 (study termination on March 9, 2012). INTERVENTIONS: Participants were randomized to receive varespladib (500 mg) or placebo daily for 16 weeks, in addition to atorvastatin and other established therapies. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary efficacy measurewas a composite of cardiovascular mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), nonfatal stroke, or unstable angina with evidence of ischemia requiring hospitalization at 16 weeks. Six-month survival status was also evaluated. RESULTS: At a prespecified interim analysis, including 212 primary end point events, the independent data and safety monitoring board recommended termination of the trial for futility and possible harm. The primary end point occurred in 136 patients (6.1%) treated with varespladib compared with 109 patients (5.1%) treated with placebo (hazard ratio [HR], 1.25; 95%CI, 0.97-1.61; log-rank P = .08). Varespladib was associated with a greater risk of MI (78 [3.4%] vs 47 [2.2%]; HR, 1.66; 95%CI, 1.16-2.39; log-rank P = .005). The composite secondary end point of cardiovascular mortality, MI, and stroke was observed in 107 patients (4.6%) in the varespladib group and 79 patients (3.8%) in the placebo group (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.02-1.82; P = .04). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In patients with recent ACS, varespladib did not reduce the risk of recurrent cardiovascular events and significantly increased the risk of MI. The sPLA2inhibition with varespladib may be harmful and is not a useful strategy to reduce adverse cardiovascular outcomes after ACS. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01130246. Copyright 2014 American Medical Association. All rights reserved

    123I-MIBG cardiac uptake and smell identification in parkinsonian patients with LRRK2 mutations

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    Reduced uptake of 123I- metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) on cardiac gammagraphy and impaired odor identification are markers of neurodegenerative diseases with Lewy bodies (LB) as a pathological hallmark, such as idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD). LRRK2 patients present with a clinical syndrome indistinguishable from IPD, but LB have not been found in some cases. Patients with such mutations could behave differently than patients with IPD with respect to MIBG cardiac uptake and olfaction. We studied 14 LRRK2 patients, 14 IPD patients matched by age, gender, disease duration and severity, and 13 age and gender matched control subjects. Olfaction was analyzed through the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT). MIBG cardiac uptake was evaluated through the H/M ratio. The late H/M was 1.44 ± 0.31 for LRRK2 patients, 1.19 ± 0.15 for PD patients, and 1.67 ± 0.16 for control subjects. LRRK2 patients presented lower but not statistically significant MIBG cardiac uptake than controls (p = 0.08) and significant higher uptake than PD patients (p = 0.04). UPSIT mean scores were 21.5 ± 7.3 for LRRK2 patients, 18.7 ± 6.2 for IPD patients and 29.7 ± 5.7 for control subjects. UPSIT score was lower in both LRRK2 and PD than in controls. In LRRK2 patients a positive correlation was found between myocardial MIBG uptake and UPSIT scores, (R = 0.801, p < 0.001). In LRRK2 patients, MIBG cardiac uptake was less impaired than in PD; a positive correlation between MIBG cardiac uptake and UPSIT scores was observed. As MIBG cardiac reduced uptake and impaired odor identification are markers of LB pathology, this findings may represent neuropathological heterogeneity among LRRK2 patients

    Parasite Burden and CD36-Mediated Sequestration Are Determinants of Acute Lung Injury in an Experimental Malaria Model

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    Although acute lung injury (ALI) is a common complication of severe malaria, little is known about the underlying molecular basis of lung dysfunction. Animal models have provided powerful insights into the pathogenesis of severe malaria syndromes such as cerebral malaria (CM); however, no model of malaria-induced lung injury has been definitively established. This study used bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), histopathology and gene expression analysis to examine the development of ALI in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA). BAL fluid of PbA-infected C57BL/6 mice revealed a significant increase in IgM and total protein prior to the development of CM, indicating disruption of the alveolar–capillary membrane barrier—the physiological hallmark of ALI. In contrast to sepsis-induced ALI, BAL fluid cell counts remained constant with no infiltration of neutrophils. Histopathology showed septal inflammation without cellular transmigration into the alveolar spaces. Microarray analysis of lung tissue from PbA-infected mice identified a significant up-regulation of expressed genes associated with the gene ontology categories of defense and immune response. Severity of malaria-induced ALI varied in a panel of inbred mouse strains, and development of ALI correlated with peripheral parasite burden but not CM susceptibility. Cd36−/− mice, which have decreased parasite lung sequestration, were relatively protected from ALI. In summary, parasite burden and CD36-mediated sequestration in the lung are primary determinants of ALI in experimental murine malaria. Furthermore, differential susceptibility of mouse strains to malaria-induced ALI and CM suggests that distinct genetic determinants may regulate susceptibility to these two important causes of malaria-associated morbidity and mortality

    Interaction of Copper-Based Nanoparticles to Soil, Terrestrial, and Aquatic Systems: Critical Review of the State of the Science and Future Perspectives

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    In the past two decades, increased production and usage of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) has inevitably increased their discharge into the different compartments of the environment, which ultimately paved the way for their uptake and accumulation in various trophic levels of the food chain. Due to these issues, several questions have been raised on the usage of NPs in everyday life and has become a matter of public health concern. Among the metallic NPs, Cu-based NPs have gained popularity due to their cost-effectiveness and multifarious promising uses. Several studies in the past represented the phytotoxicity of Cu-based NPs on plants. However, comprehensive knowledge is still lacking. Additionally, the impact of Cu-based NPs on soil organisms such as agriculturally important microbes, fungi, mycorrhiza, nematode, and earthworms are poorly studied. This review article critically analyses the literature data to achieve a more comprehensive knowledge on the toxicological profile of Cu-based NPs and increase our understanding of the effects of Cu-based NPs on aquatic and terrestrial plants as well as on soil microbial communities. The underlying mechanism of biotransformation of Cu-based NPs and the process of their penetration into plants has also been discussed herein. Overall, this review could provide valuable information to design rules and regulations for the safe disposal of Cu-based NPs into a sustainable environment

    Particle identification in ALICE : a Bayesian approach

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    Flow Dominance and Factorization of Transverse Momentum Correlations in Pb-Pb Collisions at the LHC

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    We present the first measurement of the two-particle transverse momentum differential correlation function, P2≡ ΔpTΔpT/ pT2, in Pb-Pb collisions at sNN=2.76 TeV. Results for P2 are reported as a function of the relative pseudorapidity (Δη) and azimuthal angle (Δφ) between two particles for different collision centralities. The Δφ dependence is found to be largely independent of Δη for |Δη|≥0.9. In the 5% most central Pb-Pb collisions, the two-particle transverse momentum correlation function exhibits a clear double-hump structure around Δφ=π (i.e., on the away side), which is not observed in number correlations in the same centrality range, and thus provides an indication of the dominance of triangular flow in this collision centrality. Fourier decompositions of P2, studied as a function of the collision centrality, show that correlations at |Δη|≥0.9 can be well reproduced by a flow ansatz based on the notion that measured transverse momentum correlations are strictly determined by the collective motion of the system

    K*(892)(0) and phi(1020)meson production at high transverse momentum in pp and Pb-Pb collisions at root sNN=2.76 TeV

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    The production of K∗(892)0 and φ(1020) mesons in proton-proton (pp) and lead-lead (Pb-Pb) collisions at √sNN = 2.76 TeV has been analyzed using a high luminosity data sample accumulated in 2011 with the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Transverse momentum (pT) spectra have been measured for K∗(892)0 and φ(1020) mesons via their hadronic decay channels for pT up to 20 GeV/c. The measurements in pp collisions have been compared to model calculations and used to determine the nuclear modification factor and particle ratios. The K∗(892)0/K ratio exhibits significant reduction from pp to central Pb-Pb collisions, consistent with the suppression of the K∗(892)0 yield at low pT due to rescattering of its decay products in the hadronic phase. In central Pb-Pb collisions the pT dependent φ(1020)/π and K∗(892)0/π ratios show an enhancement over pp collisions for pT ≈ 3 GeV/c, consistent with previous observations of strong radial flow. At high pT, particle ratios in Pb-Pb collisions are similar to those measured in pp collisions. In central Pb-Pb collisions, the production of K∗(892)0 and φ(1020) mesons is suppressed for pT &gt; 8 GeV/c. This suppression is similar to that of charged pions, kaons, and protons, indicating that the suppression does not depend on particle mass or flavor in the light quark sector
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