52 research outputs found

    Clustering in Conjunction with Wrapper Approach to Select Discriminatory Genes for Microarray Dataset Classification

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    With the advent of microarray technology, it is possible to measure gene expression levels of thousands of genes simultaneously. This helps us diagnose and classify some particular cancers directly using DNA microarray. High-dimensionality and small sample size of microarray datasets has made the task of classification difficult. These datasets contain a large number of redundant and irrelevant genes. For efficient classification of samples there is a need of selecting a smaller set of relevant and non-redundant genes. In this paper, we have proposed a two stage algorithm for finding a set of discriminatory genes responsible for classification of high dimensional microarray datasets. In the first stage redundancy is reduced by grouping correlated genes into clusters and selecting a representative gene from each cluster. Maximal information compression index is used to measure similarity between genes. In the second stage a wrapper based forward feature selection method is used to obtain a set of discriminatory genes for a given classifier. We have investigated three different techniques for clustering and four classifiers in our experiments. The proposed algorithm is tested on six well known publicly available datasets. Comparison with the other state-of-the-art methods show that our proposed algorithm is able to achieve better classification accuracy with less number of genes

    Quantum secure direct communication with SU(2) invariant separable polarisation- OAM states

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    We propose a quantum secure direct communication protocol using SU (2)- invariant 2×N2\times N separable states, identified as separable equivalents of two-qubit entangled Werner states in [Bharath & Ravishankar, Phys. Rev. A 89, 062110}]. These states can be experimentally realized as incoherent superpositions of separable polarisation-OAM states.Comment: Accepted for oral presentation in International Conference on Quantum Computing and Communications held at Bathinda, Punjab, Indi

    Layered semiquantum secure communication protocols

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    In this paper, we harness the potential offered by multidimensional states in secure communication with only one quantum participant. We propose four protocols for--(i) layered semi--quantum key distribution, (ii) layered semi-quantum secret sharing, (iii) integrated layered semi-quantum key distribution and secret sharing, and, (iv) integrated layered semi-quantum secure direct communication and key distribution to share secret information in an arbitrary layered network. All the four protocols allow for simultaneous distribution of secure information in all the layers of a network, thanks to multidimensional states.Comment: 13 pages, 2 figure

    Task-dependent semi-quantum secure communication in layered networks with OAM states of light

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    Secure communication in layered networks having differently preferred participants has attracted a lot of research attention. Protocols for key distribution in a layered network have been recently proposed in [M. Pivoluska et al., Phys. Rev. A 97, 032312] by employing asymmetrically entangled multiqudit states. Due to the employment of asymmetrically entangled multiqudit states, the yield of these protocols is very low. To address this issue, in this work, we have proposed semi-quantum secure communication protocols by employing separable states only which give a better yield and a higher key generation rate. As illustrations, we present two representative protocols. The first protocol allows sharing of two keys simultaneously in a network of two layers. The second protocol facilitates direct communication in one layer and key distribution in the other. The separable states, i.e., coherent pulses of orbital angular momentum required in the protocols are easily realizable with current technologies.Comment: Accepted in QIP 2023 (held at Ghent, Belgium) for a poster presentatio

    Collaborative error-immune information transfer with OAM modes of light in networks through atmospheric turbulence

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    We present a protocol for collaborative error-immune information through atmospheric turbulence. The protocol allows transferring of information in a network of three participants.Comment: Accepted for oral presentation in International Conference on Quantum Computing and Communications, 2023 held at Bathinda, Punjab, Indi

    Modified Excipients in Novel Drug Delivery: Need of the Day

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    Drug products not only contain “actives” that confer the intended therapeutic benefits such as pain relief or act on particular part of the body, but contain other materials that are also “functional” with respect to the drug product. These are known as excipients and specific functionality which they confer to a particular product is independentupon the process used to add the excipient to the formulation and its exact location within the final dosage form. Introduction of novel drug delivery systems and new drugmoieties lead to the need for new excipients with varied characteristics. Development of new excipient entities and their evaluation is a costly procedure; modificationof existing excipients is very easy, more economical and less time consuming. The development of excipients that are capable of fulfilling multifunctional roles such asenhancing drug bioavailability and drug stability as well as controlling the release of the drug according to the therapeutic needs is one of the most important prerequisitesfor further progress in the design of novel drug delivery systems. The main focus of this article is on synthetic novel excipients that perform multiple functions inpharmaceutical formulations

    FORMULATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MATRIX TABLETS USING MUCILAGE OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA AS NATURAL BINDER

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    Objective: The present research work was to formulate matrix tablets of diclofenac sodium using mucilage extracted from Tinospora cordifolia as a novel binding agent. Also, a comparative study on binding properties of mucilage and carbopol were performed.Methods: Fresh stems of Tinospora cordifolia were collected and mucilage was extracted out using standard method. The isolated mucilage was characterised for physicochemical parameters. Formulation of diclofenac sodium tablets (f1-f6) was done by dry granulation method using 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% concentration of mucilage of Tinospora cardifolia as natural binder. Carbopol 2% was used as synthetic matrix forming agent. Microcrystalline cellulose was used as diluents, magnesium stearate and talc as lubricant. The formulated tablets were evaluated for parameters such as tablet thickness, hardness, weight variation, disintegration time, percent friability and in vitro drug release characteristics. The drug release mechanism was determined by fitting the release data into different kinetics models.Results: The results revealed that all the pre and post compression parameters of the formulated tablets (f1-f6) were in compliance with pharmacopoeial limits. In vitro drug release studies showed that formulation f6 containing maximum concentration of mucilage release the drug in a most controlled and sustained manner with maximum drug release of 63.6% in 15 h in comparison with f1(2% carbopol) giving 80% release and was found to be stable for 3 mo as indicated by stability studies. The mechanism of drug releases from formulation f1-f6 was found to be polymer disentanglement and erosion. Preformulation studies using FTIR study reveals that there is no incompatibility between the pure drug and mucilage of tinospora cardifolia used.Conclusion: Based on the experimental findings it can be concluded that Tinospora cordifolia mucilage can be used as a release retardant agent in the formulation of sustained release dosage forms

    ELASTIC LIPOSOME MEDIATED TRANSDERMAL DELIVERY OF AN ANTI-HYPERTENSIVE AGENT: NIFEDIPINE

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    In the present investigation elastic liposomes of nifedipine were prepared for transdermal delivery. Elastic liposomes bearing nifedipine were prepared by rotary evaporation method and characterized for various parameters including vesicles shape, size and size distribution, entrapment efficiency, number of vesicles, and stability. Then entrapment efficiency of different compositions of elastic liposomal formulations was carried out, through which one formulation was selected for the further parameters.  Higher entrapment efficiency was found in transferosomal formulaton which was more than liposomal formulation. Also similar trend was observed in number of vesicles present in elastic liposomal formulation were also more than liposomal formulation. The in vitro drug release study was carried out in modified Diffusion cell using Dialysis membrane. The release rate of nifedipine from elastic liposomes was significantly lower than liposomes. Ex-vivo study conducted on male albino rats (Sprague Dawley) was also taken as a measure of performance of elastic liposomal and liposomal solution. Skin study showed that elastic liposomal formulation provides higher skin permeation as compared to liposomal solution of nifedipine. (elastic liposome 76.41±0.9,  liposome 71.44±0.9) Stability studies showed that there was no change in consistency of elastic liposomal formulation and also drug crystals were not appeared. Hence, the present study reveals that elastic liposomal formulation of nifedipine possesses greater potential to enhance skin permeation, prolong drug release, and improve the site-specificity of nifedipine. Keyword’s- nifedipine. elastic liposomes, Transdermal delivery, stabilit
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