118 research outputs found

    Advanced space transportation technologies

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    A wide range of propulsion technologies for space transportation are discussed in the literature. It is clear from the literature review that a single propulsion technology cannot satisfy the many mission needs in space. Many of the technologies tested, proposed, or in experimental stages relate to: chemical and nuclear fuel; radiative and corpuscular external energy source; tethers; cannons; and electromagnetic acceleration. The scope and limitation of these technologies is well tabulated in the literature. Prior experience has shown that an extensive amount of fuel needs to be carried along for the return mission. This requirement puts additional constraints on the lift off rocket technology and limits the payload capacity. Consider the possibility of refueling in space. If the return fuel supply is guaranteed, it will not only be possible to lift off more payload but also to provide security and safety of the mission. Exploration to deep space where solar sails and thermal effects fade would also be possible. Refueling would also facilitate travel on the planet of exploration. This aspect of space transportation prompts the present investigation. The particle emissions from the Sun's corona will be collected under three different conditions: in space closer to the Sun, in the Van Allen Belts; and on the Moon. It is proposed to convert the particle state into gaseous, liquid, or solid state and store it for refueling space vehicles. These facilities may be called space pump stations and the fuel collected as space fuel. Preliminary estimates of fuel collection at all three sites will be made. Future work will continue towards advancing the art of collection rate and design schemes for pumping stations

    An experimental study of near wall flow parameters in the blade end-wall corner region

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    The near wall flow parameters in the blade end-wall corner region is investigated. The blade end-wall corner region was simulated by mounting an airfoil section (NACA 65-015 base profile) symmetric blades on both sides of the flat plate with semi-circular leading edge. The initial 7 cm from the leading edge of the flat plate was roughened by gluing No. 4 floor sanding paper to artificially increase the boundary layer thickness on the flat plate. The initial flow conditions of the boundary layer upstream of the corner region are expected to dictate the behavior of flow inside the corner region. Therefore, an experimental investigation was extended to study the combined effect of initial roughness and increased level of free stream turbulence on the development of a 2-D turbulent boundary layer in the absence of the blade. The measurement techniques employed in the present investigation included, the conventional pitot and pitot-static probes, wall taps, the Preston tube, piezoresistive transducer and the normal sensor hot-wire probe. The pitot and pitot-static probes were used to obtain mean velocity profile measurements within the boundary layer. The measurements of mean surface static pressure were obtained with the surface static tube and the conventional wall tap method. The wall shear vector measurements were made with a specially constructed Preston tube. The flush mounted piezoresistive type pressure transducer were employed to measure the wall pressure fluctuation field. The velocity fluctuation measurements, used in obtaining the wall pressure-velocity correlation data, were made with normal single sensor hot-wire probe. At different streamwise stations, in the blade end-wall corner region, the mean values of surface static pressure varied more on the end-wall surface in the corner region were mainly caused by the changes in the curvature of the streamlines. The magnitude of the wall shear stress in the blade end-wall corner region increased significantly in the close vicinity of the corner line. The maximum value of the wall shear stress and its location from the corner line, on both the surfaces forming the corner region, were observed to change along the corner. These observed changes in the maximum values of the wall shear stress and its location from the corner line could be associated with the stretching and attenuation of the horseshoe vortex. The wall shear stress vectors in the blade end-wall corner region were observed to be more skewed on the end-wall surface as compared to that on the blade surface. The differences in the wall shear stress directions obtained with the Preston tube and flow visualization method were within the range in which the Preston tube was found to be insensitive to the yaw angle

    An investigation of the flow characteristics in the blade endwall corner region

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    Studies were undertaken to determine the structure of the flow in the blade end wall corner region simulated by attaching two uncambered airfoils on either side of a flat plate with a semicircular leading edge. Detailed measurements of the corner flow were obtained with conventional pressure probes, hot wire anemometry, and flow visualization. The mean velocity profiles and six components of the Reynolds stress tensor were obtained with an inclined single sensor hot wire probe whereas power spectra were obtained with a single sensor oriented normal to the flow. Three streamwise vortices were identified based on the surface streamlines, distortion of total pressure profiles, and variation of mean velocity components in the corner. A horseshoe vortex formed near the leading edge of the airfoil. Within a short distance downstream, a corner vortex was detected between the horseshoe vortex and the surfaces forming the corner. A third vortex was formed at the rear portion of the corner between the corner vortex and the surface of the flat plate. Turbulent shear stress and production of turbulence are negligibly small. A region of negative turbulent shear stress was also observed near the region of low turbulence intensity from the vicinity of the flat plate

    FOXD1-ALDH1A3 signaling is a determinant for the self-renewal and tumorigenicity of mesenchymal glioma stem cells

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    Glioma stem-like cells (GSC) with tumor-initiating activity orchestrate the cellular hierarchy in glioblastoma and engender therapeutic resistance. Recent work has divided GSC into two subtypes with a mesenchymal (MES) GSC population as the more malignant subtype. In this study, we identify the FOXD1-ALDH1A3 signaling axis as a determinant of the MES GSC phenotype. The transcription factor FOXD1 is expressed predominantly in patient-derived cultures enriched with MES, but not with the proneural GSC subtype. shRNA-mediated attenuation of FOXD1 in MES GSC ablates their clonogenicity in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, FOXD1 regulates the transcriptional activity of ALDH1A3, an established functional marker for MES GSC. Indeed, the functional roles of FOXD1 and ALDH1A3 are likely evolutionally conserved, insofar as RNAi-mediated attenuation of their orthologous genes in Drosophila blocks formation of brain tumors engineered in that species. In clinical specimens of high-grade glioma, the levels of expression of both FOXD1 and ALDH1A3 are inversely correlated with patient prognosis. Finally, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of ALDH we developed, termed GA11, displays potent in vivo efficacy when administered systemically in a murine GSC-derived xenograft model of glioblastoma. Collectively, our findings define a FOXD1-ALDH1A3 pathway in controling the clonogenic and tumorigenic potential of MES GSC in glioblastoma tumors

    Sequential herbicide application coupled with mulch enhances the productivity and quality of winter onion (Allium cepa L.) while effectively controlling the mixed weed flora

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    Weed control poses substantial difficulties for winter season onion (Allium cepa L.) cultivation in the north-western Indo-Gangetic Plains, primarily due to the constrained efficacy of the existing herbicides. To address this issue, a 2-year field study was conducted to assess the efficacy of pre- and post-emergence herbicides (pendimethalin, ethoxysulfuron, imazethapyr, and quizalofop-p-ethyl) individually and in combination with crop residue mulch for weed control in winter onion. The results revealed that using herbicides or mulches in isolation did not provide satisfactory weed control. However, the integration of natural mulch with pendimethalin followed by quizalofop-p-ethyl application proved to be the most effective weed control strategy, resulting in the least reduction in bulb yield (10.3%) compared to other treatments. On the contrary, combinations of pendimethalin with ethoxysulfuron or imazethapyr showed adverse effects on the onion crop and inflicted the highest yield losses among all treatments (78.6 and 83.4%, respectively). However, the combination of pendimethalin with quizalofop-p-ethyl coupled with crop mulch resulted in season-long weed control and over 80% bulb yield (36.58 t/ha) gains compared to the weed-free condition. These findings emphasize the efficacy of combining herbicides and mulches as an integrated weed management strategy for onions. By adopting such integrated approaches, farmers could improve weed control while maintaining bulb yield and quality, reducing the risks associated with herbicide resistance, and promoting sustainable onion production in the north-western Indo-Gangetic Plains

    Competence in Endoscopic Ultrasound and Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography, From Training Through Independent Practice.

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    BACKGROUND & AIMS: It is unclear whether participation in competency-based fellowship programs for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) results in high-quality care in independent practice. We measured quality indicator (QI) adherence during the first year of independent practice among physicians who completed endoscopic training with a systematic assessment of competence. METHODS: We performed a prospective multicenter cohort study of invited participants from 62 training programs. In phase 1, 24 advanced endoscopy trainees (AETs), from 20 programs, were assessed using a validated competence assessment tool. We used a comprehensive data collection and reporting system to create learning curves using cumulative sum analysis that were shared with AETs and trainers quarterly. In phase 2, participating AETs entered data into a database pertaining to every EUS and ERCP examination during their first year of independent practice, anchored by key QIs. RESULTS: By the end of training, most AETs had achieved overall technical competence (EUS 91.7%, ERCP 73.9%) and cognitive competence (EUS 91.7%, ERCP 94.1%). In phase 2 of the study, 22 AETs (91.6%) participated and completed a median of 136 EUS examinations per AET and 116 ERCP examinations per AET. Most AETs met the performance thresholds for QIs in EUS (including 94.4% diagnostic rate of adequate samples and 83.8% diagnostic yield of malignancy in pancreatic masses) and ERCP (94.9% overall cannulation rate). CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective multicenter study, we found that although competence cannot be confirmed for all AETs at the end of training, most meet QI thresholds for EUS and ERCP at the end of their first year of independent practice. This finding affirms the effectiveness of training programs. Clinicaltrials.gov ID NCT02509416

    Competence in Endoscopic Ultrasound and Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography, From Training Through Independent Practice.

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    BACKGROUND & AIMS: It is unclear whether participation in competency-based fellowship programs for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) results in high-quality care in independent practice. We measured quality indicator (QI) adherence during the first year of independent practice among physicians who completed endoscopic training with a systematic assessment of competence. METHODS: We performed a prospective multicenter cohort study of invited participants from 62 training programs. In phase 1, 24 advanced endoscopy trainees (AETs), from 20 programs, were assessed using a validated competence assessment tool. We used a comprehensive data collection and reporting system to create learning curves using cumulative sum analysis that were shared with AETs and trainers quarterly. In phase 2, participating AETs entered data into a database pertaining to every EUS and ERCP examination during their first year of independent practice, anchored by key QIs. RESULTS: By the end of training, most AETs had achieved overall technical competence (EUS 91.7%, ERCP 73.9%) and cognitive competence (EUS 91.7%, ERCP 94.1%). In phase 2 of the study, 22 AETs (91.6%) participated and completed a median of 136 EUS examinations per AET and 116 ERCP examinations per AET. Most AETs met the performance thresholds for QIs in EUS (including 94.4% diagnostic rate of adequate samples and 83.8% diagnostic yield of malignancy in pancreatic masses) and ERCP (94.9% overall cannulation rate). CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective multicenter study, we found that although competence cannot be confirmed for all AETs at the end of training, most meet QI thresholds for EUS and ERCP at the end of their first year of independent practice. This finding affirms the effectiveness of training programs. Clinicaltrials.gov ID NCT02509416

    An embedding technique to determine ŌĄŌĄ backgrounds in proton-proton collision data

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    An embedding technique is presented to estimate standard model tau tau backgrounds from data with minimal simulation input. In the data, the muons are removed from reconstructed mu mu events and replaced with simulated tau leptons with the same kinematic properties. In this way, a set of hybrid events is obtained that does not rely on simulation except for the decay of the tau leptons. The challenges in describing the underlying event or the production of associated jets in the simulation are avoided. The technique described in this paper was developed for CMS. Its validation and the inherent uncertainties are also discussed. The demonstration of the performance of the technique is based on a sample of proton-proton collisions collected by CMS in 2017 at root s = 13 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 41.5 fb(-1).Peer reviewe

    Search for Physics beyond the Standard Model in Events with Overlapping Photons and Jets